This post is a citation of the preface to a book in Kannada by Mahamahopadhyaya (late) Sri Ranganatha Sharma in Kannada. He has cited verses from Harivamsha, etc. to show that if people, owing to ignorance or ill-disposition, think Shiva is someone lesser than Vishnu, the cited verses dispel such an attitude. One verse, from Harivamsha he has cited is:

भास्वत्त्रिपुण्ड्रो भसितैः सितः सन्
मौनी जटी वल्कलवान् मुकुन्दः |
निरन्तरं चेतसि चन्द्रचूडं
विचिन्तयन् पञ्च जजाप वर्णान् || [Reference not given]

[Mukunda, donning the tripundra with bhasma, bright, observing mauna, with matted hair and clad in bark dress, incessantly thinking of Chandrachuda in his mind, chanted the panchAkshari – namaH shivaaya.]

Readers may share the images with their Kannada-knowing friends.

He has also cited a verse from the Lingapurana:

सूत उवाच।।
एवं स्तुत्वा महादेवं दंडवत्प्रणिपत्य च।। [alt: कृत्वा पाशुपतं व्रतम्]
जजाप रुद्रं भगवान्कोटिवारं जले स्थितः।। ७१.९८ ।।

Lord Vishnu, having saluted and praised Rudra, prostrated to him by completely laying his body to the ground. Vishnu stood in water and chanted the Sri Rudra japa a crore times. This reminds us of a Vaidika Shiva Bhakta of the Tamil land, named ‘Rudra Pasupathi Naayanar’ : and a A short Tamil documentary on Sri Rudra Pasupathy Nayanar: is astounding is that Lord Vishnu adopted the same method of chanting the Sri Rudram (Shatarudriyam of the Krishna Yajur Veda which is extremely popular among smarta-s alone) in praise of Shiva alone ] by standing in the water just as the Tamil Vaidika Saint who has attained immortality both ways: in his own life and in the Tamil History called Periya Puranam.

See this post too:

The preface of MM Sri Ranganatha Sharma was for a book on the Shiva Sahasra Nama of the Mahabharata which was translated by another eminent scholar of Advaita Sri Sheshachala Sharma who taught in the Govt. Jayachamarajendra Sanskrit College, Bengaluru.  This was translated to English and published by the Chinmaya Mission:

One can read the preface in the above link in English.  The book, in English can be purchased by visiting the above link. 

The Harivamsha verse cited above is not to be found in the extant editions of the Harivamsha on the internet. Those that are not on the internet have not been searched. It is to be noted that the BORI when preparing the critical edition of the Harivamsha has said that it has examined not less than 36 manuscripts.  That shows that there have been countless manuscripts in vogue in the ancient times. 

Those desirous of reading the preface of MM Sri Ranganatha Sharma in his original Kannada may visit:



 Om Tat Sat


‘The states of being Brahma, Keshava, Indra, etc. granted by Rudra’

In the Mahabharata in a dialogue Vaishampayana says:

वैशम्पायन उवाच। 13-49-59x (6871) एतान्यत्यद्भुतान्येव कर्माण्यथ महात्मनः। प्रोक्तानि मुनिभिः श्रुत्वा विस्मयामास पाण्डवः॥ 13-49-59 (83443) ततः कृष्णोऽब्रवीद्वाक्यं पुनर्मतिमतांवरः। युधिष्ठिरं धर्मनिधिं पुरुहूतमिवेश्वरः॥ 13-49-60 (83444) उपमन्युर्मयि प्राह तपन्निव दिवाकरः। अशुभैः पापकर्माणो ये नराः कलुषीकृताः॥ 13-49-61 (83445) ईशानं न प्रपद्यन्ते तमोराजसवृत्तयः। 13-49-62 (83446) ईश्वरं सम्प्रपद्यन्ते द्विजा भावितभावनाः॥ 13-49-63 (83447) सर्वथा वर्तमानोपि यो भक्तः परमेश्वरे। सदृशोऽरण्यवासीनां मुनीनां भावितात्मनाम्॥ 13-49-64 (83448) ब्रह्मत्वं केशवत्वं वा शक्रत्वं वा सुरैः सह। त्रैलोक्यस्याधिपत्यं वा तुष्टो रुद्रः प्रयच्छति 13-49-65

The last verse says: Brahmatvam, Keshavatvam, Shakratvam (Indra) and the authority to govern the entire world (three worlds) along with the gods will be granted by Rudra when he is propitiated.
The above edition is a recently thoroughly revised one by a committed team which includes renowned Madhva scholars:…/mahabharata-k-13… //This e-text is based on the `Southern Recension’ of the Mahābhārata, edited by Krishnacharya 1906–1914. Prof. Shrinivasa Varakhedi worked on this with the support of his research team members, Prof. K. V. Ramakrishnamacharyulu, Prof. Amba Kulakarni, Prof. Prahladachar, members of MSP Bangalore and many others. Dr. Dominik Wujastyk converted the files to utf-8 IAST encoding and Patrick Mc Allister converted them into a single XML file for the SARIT project in 2012.//
The above verse/s are found in other editions which bear the NilakanTha commentary too. What is shown above is also the Kumbhakonam edition that Madhvas approve of.  

Posted by: adbhutam | December 25, 2018

A few selections from three commentaries on the Amarakosha

A few selections from three commentaries on the Amarakosha by:

1. Lingayasuri (12th Century CE) 2. Mallinatha (1350-1450 CE.)
3. Bommaganti Apparaya (1385-1410 CE)

The following selection highlights:

1. The existence of the Devi Bhagavatam before the 12th Century CE
2. Existence of the Devi Shatakam of Anandavardhana (8th-9th Century CE)
3. The citation of the Lalita Sahasra Nama (perhaps the earliest)
4. The citation of the Soundarya Lahari twice (perhaps the earliest)
5. The Advaitic following of the Amarakosha commentators
6. The Shiva paaramya given expression to by these ancient/medieval commentators
7. Hari-Hara abeda idea by the 12th Century commentator
8. Turiya Shiva and Turiya Vishnu idea
9. The Devi Paaramya that follows from the citation
10. That the commentators were all vaidikas/vedantins
11. Citation of Shankaracharya’s Vishnu Sahasra Nama Bhashyam in a non-Vedantic work

The complete details with images can be seen here:

n the pdf uploaded I had missed out the inclusion of this particular entry:
Mallinatha (14th Century CE) cites the Lalita Sahasra nama ‘कुरुविन्द्रमणिश्रेणिकनत्कोटीरशोभिता’ (…मण्डिता is another reading).
Kindly include this entry while reading the pdf.   


Posted by: adbhutam | December 21, 2018

A short selection from Haradatta’s works

Here is a short document that collects some portions of the works of Haradatta (12th Century CE):

warm regards


Commentary of Shankara and Haradatta on the Adhyatma PaTala of Ap.Dh.Sutra

It is very well known that Bhagavatpada Shankara has penned a commentary on the chapter ‘Adhyatma PaTala’ (the chapter concerning Moksha) in the Apastamba Dharma Sutra. A particular edition of the commentary of Haradatta (12th Century CE) for the entire Ap.Dh.Sutra has included the Shankaran commentary in that chapter. Hence one gets to see both the commentaries together. In the file below just that chapter where both the commentaries occur has been culled out to make a standalone document for those who wish to read Shankara and Haradatta without having to read/download the entire book of Ap.Dh.Sutra. One finds from the short commentary that Haradatta was an Advaitin.

warm regards

Posted by: adbhutam | December 20, 2018

Selections from Ksheerasvamin’s commentary to Amarakosha

Shiva related names and other selected words of interest to Vedanta in the Amarakosha and the commentary of Ksheerasvamin thereon 

This post, with several images, can be viewed in a pdf downloadable here:

This post is of interest to Advaita and Advaitins mainly because of Ksheeraswamin’s commentary to the term ‘Brahma’: [Some other details are also captured in the post in the form of images]    
//He cites the  आत्मैवेदं सर्वम्’ (छा. उ. ७ । २५ । २) which Shankara has cited at least 20 times in the bhashyas. The commentary also cites another key Advaita-friendly passage of the Kathopanishat ‘नेह नानास्ति किञ्चन’ (क. उ. २ । १ । ११) (which also occurs in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad) which, again, is a favourite of Shankara who cites it several times.  Ksheerasvamin has revealed his Advaitic following through the above shruti passages while commenting on the word ‘Brahman’.  These passages are ‘trade mark’ Advaita-proclaiming ones. Non-Advaitins would never prefer this genre of passages to depict their doctrine. They would go with ‘dvA suparNa’ of the Mundaka (to affirm jiveshvara bheda of Madhva) or ‘ya Atmani tiShThan…..antaryAmi..yasya AtmA sharIram..’ of the Brihadaranyaka for proclaiming the sharIra-sharIri bhava (Ramanuja). The ones cited by Ksheerasvami will be given a perfectly bheda-friendly meaning by them.  Hence it is very clear that Ksheeraswamin was an Advaitin.   

The above short study reveals that Ksheerasvamin of the 11th Century CE was an Advaitin who was too far removed from Vidyaranya and Appayya Dikshitar to be able to have been ‘corrupted’ by the latter twoJ  

Om Tat Sat//The post can be viewed along with all the images without having to download the file, here:

A few selections from Ballala Sena’s (12th Century CE) ‘Daana saagara’

In this selection the aspect of kind of texts he used in this work, the deities, especially Shiva and Vishnu, are highlighted. See the various images in the attachment to this article here.

Vallalasena or Ballala Sena (Bengali: বল্লাল সেন; reign: 1160–1179), also known as Ballal Sen in vernacular literature, was the second ruler of the Sena dynasty of Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent.[1] He was the son and successor of Vijaya Sena, and ended the Pala Empire by defeating Govindapala.[2]

Ballala Sena married Ramadevi a princess of the Western Chalukya Empire which indicates that the Sena rulers maintained close social contact with south India.[3]

He is the best-known Sena ruler and consolidated the kingdom. He might have completed the conquest of North Bengal and also conquered Magadha and Mithila. According to a tradition in Bengal, Ballala Sena’s kingdom consisted of five provinces, viz., Banga, Barendra, Rar, Bagri (possibly a portion of lower Bengal) and Mithila. But neither the two inscriptions that survive from this region, nor the two great literary works, which were attributed to him, viz., Dan Sagar and Adbhut Sagar, allude to his military victories. On the other hand, these refer to his scholastic activities and social reforms. Ballala Sena is associated with the revival of orthodox Hindu practices in Bengal.

Ballala’s book. The kind of deities-related daana. The texts used by Ballala Sena in this work include Puranas like Devi and Kalika Puranas apart from Vishnu Dharmottara and Shiva Puranas. See image. All deities like Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are placed on equal status. That Ballala was also a Vedantin is brought out by his quoting from the Kurma Purana. The Teacher, Guru, is praised as Lord Shankara, Shiva, himself. The Trimurtis are to be equally worshiped. Ballala Sena opens his work with an obeisance to Brahmanas. The pinnacle of Ballala Sena’s attitude towards Shiva and Vishnu as non-different comes from his own words as shown in this last image, where he cites the Kurmapurana. यत्किञ्चिद् देवमीशानमुद्दिश्य ब्राह्मणे शुचौ ।
दीयते विष्णवे वापि तदनन्तफलप्रदम् ।। २६.३४ || Whatever is gifted to a pious Brahmana with the attitude that it is offered to Shiva or Vishnu will result in infinite fruit (to the giver).

I have made the above observations in order to guide the reader who will be viewing these several images I have tagged to this post. Do not miss out on any image here. Please read the above paragraph before viewing the images.  See images in the FB link provided below.

Om Tat Sat

Posted by: adbhutam | December 2, 2018

Selections from the Kavyalankara of Bhamaha (7th Century CE)

Selections from the Kavyalankara of Bhamaha (7th Century CE)

Sri Bhamaha was a Sanskrit poetician, apparently from Kashmir, believed to be contemporaneous with Sri Daṇḍin (7th century CE). This article is based on records available about Sri Bamaha’s native place, time, work, etc.

A commentary to this work, though not fully available, has been extracted, completed and given a full shape by a Vishishta Advaitin scholar of the yesteryears (dating back to the 1930s) by name Sri D.T. Tatacharya. His commentary has also been taken into consideration while making these selections.

Sri Bamaha proves himself a Vedantin – a Vaidika (i.e. someone with good knowledge of the Vedic scriptural aspects). This fact is obvious through many of the verses selected here. The purpose of this article is to bring out those aspects in Sri Bhamaha, who belongs to a very ancient period, predating even Sri Adi Shankaracharya!


Some of the features of Bhamaha’s work:

Hari-Hara Abedha and Reference to Deities

Vedantic Inclination

Bhamaha was the son of Rakrila Gomin. Maskar: was probably his son.’ From the word Gomin and from the salutation to Sarva Sarvagna at the commencement  of his work, it has been said he was a Buddhist. Chandra in his grammar mentions Gomin as a termination of respect. The epithets Sarva and Sarvagna have been used for various divine incarnations without limitation. Bhamaha’s reverence to the Hindu pantheons and his elegant references to heroes of Ramayana, Mahabliarata  and  Puranas indicate more properly his Vedic persuasion. This surmise is supported by Bhamalaa’s scathing criticism of Buddhist theory of Anyapoha.

Download the article that contains several images from the Kaavyaalankaara here:

Posted by: adbhutam | November 30, 2018

Jayantha Bhatta on Shaiva-Vaishnava tussle

There is no basis, justification, for Shaiva-Vaishnava quarrels – says Jayantha Bhatta, a vaidika, of 9th Century CE in his Nyayamanjari.

சைவ-வைணவப் பூசலுக்கு ஆதாரமும் ந்யாமமும் இல்லவே இல்லை – 9 ஆம் நூற்றாண்டில் வாழ்ந்த ஜெயந்த பட்டன் கூற்று. [எனது இக்கட்டுரையை அன்பர் யாரேனும் தமிழாக்கம் செய்து முக நூலில் பதிவு செய்ய்லாம்.]

ಶೈವ-ವೈಷ್ಣವ ತಗಾದಿಗೆ ಆಧಾರವೂ ನ್ಯಾಯವೂ ಇಲ್ಲ – 9ನೆ ಶತಮಾನದ ಪ್ರಸಿದ್ಧ ನೈಯಾಯಿಕ ಜಯಂತ ಭಟ್ಟನೆಂಬ ವೈದಿಕನ ಮಾತಿದು.

ನನ್ನ ಈ ಪ್ರಬಂಧವನ್ನು ಕನ್ನಡಕ್ಕೆ ಅನುವದಿಸಿ ಯಾರಾದರೂ ಪೋಸ್ಟ್ ಮಾಡ ಬಹುದು.…

The ‘nyayamanjari’ is a renowned work of Jayantha Bhatta This work is a detailed exposition of the Nyaya sutras of Gautama. Under the section of Veda praamaaNya, Jayantha Bhatta discusses the issues related to the Veda vs. Agama problem. The entire discussion, in simple Sanskrit, is available in the link shown above. Just one aspect is highlighted here: [there are several typos in the above page. Incidentally, Jayantha Bhatta, while refuting the Vedanta Darshana, along with Sankhya, etc. has considered Shankara’s Advaita as the purva paksha and made a detailed refutation. One can see the analogies, arguments, etc. present in Shaankara Bhashya replicated while refuting.]

In order to see the embedded comments please read from the linked page.

शैववैष्णवकलहस्य निर्मूलत्वम्

[The baselessness of the Shaiva-Vaishnava tussle]

214एकस्य कस्यचिदशेषजगत्प्रसूति-

हेतोरनादिपुरुषस्य महाविभूतेः ।


ब्रह्मेति विष्णुरिति रुद्र इति प्रतीतिः ॥ ८३ ॥

[In this verse, Jayantha Bhatta says ‘One Beginningless, Infinite, Purusha, of great splendor, who is the One complete cause of the creation, sustenance and destruction, owing to these very cosmic functions, comes to be called Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra.]

The embedded commentary 214 in the above citation cites the famous Vishnu Purana verse:

सृष्टिस्थित्यन्तकरणीं ब्रह्मविष्णुशिवात्मिकाम् ।
स संज्ञां याति भगवान् एक एव जनार्दनःवि. पु. १-२-६६

The meaning of the above verse is the same as what is given for Jayantha Bhatta’s verse.

इत्याद्यप्यत्र द्रष्टव्यम् ॥

शैवपञ्चरात्रोक्तधर्माणां वैदिकत्वम्

[The Vedic nature of the practices taught in the Shaiva and Pancharatra Agamas]

वेदे च पदे पदे एक एव रुद्रोऽवतस्थे न द्वितीयः अथ. ३,
इदं विष्णुर्विचक्रमे तै. सं. १-२-१३, ऋ. सं. १-२२-७ इति रुद्रो
विष्णुश्च पठ्यते । तद्योगाश्च 215तदाराधनोपाया वेदेऽपि चोदिता
एव । शैवपञ्चरात्रयोस्तु तद्योगा एवा216न्यथोपदिश्यन्ते । न चैष
I.637 एव वेदविरोधः; वैकल्पिकत्वादुपायानाम् । अतः आप्तप्रणीतत्वात्,
वेदाविरुद्धत्वाच्च न तयोरप्रामाण्यम् ॥

[Jayantha Bhatta says: In the Veda, repeatedly we hear ‘One Rudra alone, none second to him (Atharvashikha/shira 3). And ‘idam vishnurvichakrame’ Tai Samhita 1.2.13, Rg.samhita1.22.7 thus about Rudra and Vishnu. The method of worshiping these deities is also taught in the Veda itself. In the Shaiva and Pancharatra Agma-s these methods alone have been taught in a different way. This much is no ground to hold the latter to be contradicting the Veda as methods are always optional. Therefore, since these Agamas have been composed by ‘Apta-s’, venerable ones, and also since these do not contradict the Veda, the two stated Agama-s are quite valid.]

This highly catholic view of Jayantha Bhatta, of the 9th Century, is very commendable. His another work ‘AagamaDambara’, a drama, is also full of such concepts.

In conclusion, I am copying two images from the Editor Sri V.Raghavan’s  note to the AagamaDambara that captures Jayantha Bhatta’s thought and also the attitude that prevailed in those distant times.

I request interested readers to bring out many more such aspects of Jayantha Bhatta’s thought.

Om Tat Sat

No automatic alt text available.

No automatic alt text available.
Posted by: adbhutam | November 23, 2018

Bondage is Unreal; The Jiva is Nityamukta, ever-liberated

Bondage is Unreal; The Jiva is Nityamukta, ever-liberated

ಬಂಧ ಸತ್ಯವಲ್ಲ. ಆತ್ಮನು ನಿತ್ಯಮುಕ್ತ ಎಂದು ಉಪನಿಷತ್ತಿನ ಸಂದೇಶ.

In the face of many Upanishadic statements proclaiming that the Atman is nityamukta (i.e. ever liberated), we conclude that the bondage experienced by the jiva is not real. Such a conclusion is derived because if the Atman is nityamukta, then it definitely follows that bondage has to be unreal. If bondage is real, the statement that the Atman is nityamukta will not hold good.

We have many Upanishadic statements declaring that the Atman is never bound and ever free; such statements only indirectly affirm that the bondage we experience is unreal. Sri Shankaracharya in His Bhashyas often uses the statement nitya-shudda-buddha-mukta-svabhaavaH. This is not a statement concocted by Sri Shankara, but one firmly rooted in the Upanishads. In Advaita, the jiva is verily Brahman, and Brahman is ever-liberated and never bound. Consequently, the bondage that the jiva appears to be experiencing is not real. Therefore, liberation of the jiva occurs when a person realizes that he is ever-free, ever-liberated and never bound.

From the transcendental standpoint, there is no bondage or liberation. However, from the empirical (vyavahaara) standpoint, when the jiva experiences bondage, the Upanishads do give him methods to extricate from the bondage – thus, the aforementioned statement regarding liberation of the jiva is also valid. Ultimately, though, when the jiva realizes his true nature, he realizes thus: ‘I was never bound before; I am not bound now; I will never be bound in the future too. I am ever free.’ This is the realization that dawns.

The following is a sample of Upanishadic statements where the ‘nitya mukta’ word appears:


षड्भिर्मासैस्तुयुक्तस्य नित्यमुक्तस्य देहिनः। अनन्तः परमो गुह्यः सम्यग्योगः प्रवर्तते ।रजस्तमोभ्यां विद्धस्य सुसमिद्धस्य देहिनः । पुत्रदारकुटुम्बेषु सक्तस्य नकदाचन ॥ २८

वराहोपनिषत् –

॥ स्वस्वरूपानुसंधानान्नृत्यन्तं सर्वसाक्षिणम् । मुहूर्तंचिन्तयेन्मां यः सर्वबन्धैः प्रमुच्यते ॥ ३२

॥ सर्वभूतान्तरस्थाय नित्यमुक्त-चिदात्मने । प्रत्यक्चैतन्यरूपाय मह्यमेव नमो नमः ॥ ३३

॥ त्वं वाऽहमस्मि भगवो देवतेऽहं वै त्वमसि । तुभ्यं मह्यमनन्ताय मह्यं तुभ्यं चिदात्मने॥ ३४

॥ नमो मह्यं परेशाय नमस्तुभ्यं शिवाय च । किं करोमि क्व गच्छामिकिं गृह्णामि त्यजामि किम् ॥ ३५

This line above त्वं वाऽहमस्मिभगवो देव तेऽहं वै त्वमसि । is present in Shankara’s bhashyam with a slight variation:

Brahma Sutra Bhashya 3.3.37:

तथा जाबालाः — ‘त्वं वा अहमस्मि भगवो देवतेऽहं वै त्वमसि’ इति ।

अथर्वणमहानारायणोपनिषत्सु –

नित्यमुक्तस्वरूपमनाधारमादिमध्यान्तशून्यं कैवल्यं परम्शान्तं सूक्ष्मतरं महतो महत्तरमपरिमितानन्दविशेषं शुद्धबोधानन्दविभूतिविशेषमनन्तानन्दविभूतिविशेषसमष्टिरूपमक्षरमनिर्देश्यं कूटस्थमचलं ध्रुवमदिग्देशकालमन्तर्बहिश्च तत्सर्वं व्याप्य परिपूर्णं परमयोगिभिर्विमृग्यं देशतःकालतो वस्तुतः परिच्छेदरहितं निरन्तराभिनवं नित्यपरिपूर्णमखण्डानन्दामृ-तविशेषं शाश्वतं परमं पदं निरतिशयानन्दानन्ततडित्पर्वताकारमद्वितीयंस्वयंप्रकाशमनिशं ज्वलति ।

तेजोबिन्दूपनिषत्सु –

॥एकसंख्याविहीनोऽस्ति नित्यमुक्तस्वरूपवान् । आकाशादपि सूक्ष्मोऽहमाद्य-न्ताभाववानहम् ॥ २९

॥ सर्वप्रकाशरूपोऽहं परावरसुखोऽस्म्यहम् । सत्ता-मात्रस्वरूपोऽहं शुद्धमोक्षस्वरूपवान् ॥ ३०

॥ सत्यानन्दस्वरूपोऽहं ज्ञानान-न्दघनोऽस्म्यहम् । विज्ञानमात्ररूपोऽहं सच्चिदानन्दलक्षणः ॥ ३१

॥ ब्रह्म-मात्रमिदं सर्वं ब्रह्मणोऽन्यन्न किंचन । तदेवाहं सदानन्दं ब्रह्मैवाहं सनात-नम् ॥ ३२

शुकरहस्योपनिषत् –

। परमं पदमिति च प्राणेन्द्रियाद्यन्तःकरण-गुणादेः परतरं सच्चिदानन्दमयं नित्यमुक्तब्रह्मस्थानं परमं पदम् ।

मैत्रेय्युपनिषत्सु –

॥ नित्यः शुद्धो बुद्धमुक्तस्वभावः सत्यःसूक्ष्मः संविभुश्चाद्वितीयः । आनन्दाब्धिर्यः परः सोऽहमस्मि प्रत्यग्धातुर्नात्रसंशीतिरस्ति ॥ ११

Om Tat Sat

Older Posts »