Two articles, for August 2015, are available here:
1. Sūta samhitā Chandogya Upaniṣad
External Evidence for Bhasma dhāraṇam by Vaidikas of ancient times
While there are several upaniṣads such as the ‘Bhasma jābālopanilṣad’, ‘bṛhajjābālopaniṣad’, etc. containing injunctions, method of producing, etc. pertaining to bhasma and its dhāraṇam, there are smṛtis like the Parāśara upa purāṇam, the Śivagītā of the Padmapurāṇam (where there is reference to Rāma having performed / observed the Pāśupata vratam by donning the bhasma) etc. too enjoin bhasma dhāraṇam for vaidikas. These are considered to be internal evidences while distinguishing these from an external evidence for the practice of vaidikas donning the bhasma during the ancient past.
In the Padmapurāṇa is the ‘Śivagītā’ where there is an instance of Rāma observing a ‘Pāśupata vrata’ taught by Agastya. It involves Rāma donning the bhasma as prescribed:
This work has a commentary ‘Śivagītābhāṣyam’ written by Jagadguru Sri Abhinava Narasimha Bhārati who adorned the Sringeri Peeṭham from 1599 to 1622 AD. The Maṭha published it in 1962 from the manuscript preserved with it. It has been newly printed again very recently and is available for purchase.
The Fourth Chapter:
अथ चतुर्थोऽध्यायः ॥
सूत उवाच ॥
एवमुक्त्वा मुनिश्रेष्ठ गते तस्मिन्निजाश्रमम् ।
अथ रामगिरौ रामस्तस्मिन्गोदावरीतटे ॥ १॥
शिवलिङ्गं प्रतिष्ठाप्य कृत्वा दीक्षां यथाविधि ।
भूतिभूषितसर्वाङ्गो रुद्राक्षाभरणैर्युतः ॥ २॥
अभिषिच्य जलैः पुण्यैर्गौतमीसिन्धुसम्भवैः ।
अर्चयित्वा वन्यपुष्पैस्तद्वद्वन्यफलैरपि ॥ ३॥
भस्मच्छन्नो भस्मशायी व्याघ्रचर्मासने स्थितः ।
नाम्नां सहस्रं प्रजपन्नक्तन्दिवमनन्यधीः ॥ ४॥
मासमेकं फलाहारो मासं पर्णाशनः स्थितः ।
मासमेकं जलाहारो मासं च पवनाशनः ॥ ५॥
शान्तो दान्तः प्रसन्नात्मा ध्यायन्नेवं महेश्वरम् ।
हृत्पङ्कजे समासीनमुमादेहार्धधारिणम् ॥ ६॥
चतुर्भुजं त्रिनयनं विद्युत्पिङ्गजटाधरम् ।
कोटिसूर्यप्रतीकाशं चन्द्रकोटिसुशीतलम् ॥ ७॥
सर्वाभरणसंयुक्तं नागयज्ञोपवीतिनम् ।
व्याघ्रचर्माम्बरधरं वरदाभयधारिणम् ॥ ८॥
व्याघ्रचर्मोत्तरीयं च सुरासुरनमस्कृतम् ।
पञ्चवक्त्रं चन्द्रमौलिं त्रिशूलडमरूधरम् ॥ ९॥
नित्यं च शाश्वतं शुद्धं ध्रुवमक्षरमव्ययम् ।
एवं नित्यं प्रजपतो गतं मासचतुष्टयम् ॥ १०॥
These verses describe Rāma observing the ritual with the prescribed codes such as donning the bhasma at the prescribed places of the body and also putting on the Rudrākṣa mālā while performing this vrata.
There are these verses in the Śivagītā of the Padmapurāṇa from the above URL:
आत्मन्यग्निं समारोप्य याते अग्नेति मन्त्रतः ।
भस्मादायाग्निरित्याद्यैर्विमृज्याङ्गानि संस्पृशेत् ॥ २७॥
भस्मच्छन्नो भवेद्विद्वान्महापातकसम्भवैः ।
पापैर्विमुच्यते सत्यं मुच्यते च न संशयः ॥ २८॥
वीर्यमग्नेर्यतो भस्म वीर्यवान्भस्मसंयुतः ।
भस्मस्नानरतो विप्रो भस्मशायी जितेन्द्रियः ॥ २९॥
सर्वपापविनिर्मुक्तः शिवसायुज्यमाप्नुयात् ।
एवं कुरु महाभाग शिवनामसहस्रकम् ॥ ३०॥
इदं तु सम्प्रदास्यामि तेन सर्वार्थमाप्स्यसि ।
सूत उवाच ॥
इत्युक्त्वा प्रददौ तस्मै शिवनामसहस्रकम् ॥ ३१॥
वेदसाराभिधं नित्यं शिवप्रत्यक्षकारकम् ।
उक्तं च तेन राम त्वं जप नित्यं दिवानिशम् ॥ ३२॥
ततः प्रसन्नो भगवान्महापाशुपतास्त्रकम् ।
तुभ्यं दास्यति तेन त्वं शत्रून्हत्वाऽऽप्स्यसि प्रियाम् ॥ ३३॥
तस्यैवास्त्रस्य माहात्म्यात्समुद्रं शोषयिष्यसि ।
संहारकाले जगतामस्त्रं तत्पार्वतीपतेः ॥ ३४॥
The above verses describe the instruction Agastya gave to Rama regarding the bhasma dhāraṇa and the ritual to be followed. He instructed Rama the Śiva sahasra nāma too that is to be chanted by Rama during the vrata. The above verses say that this ‘Śiva sahasra nama is named ‘vedasāra śivasahasranāma’. One can compare this process with the Upamanyu’s instructions to Kṛṣṇa in the MB for a similar vratal Kṛṣṇa is to observe where too the ‘Śiva sahasra nāma’ was instructed. Thus, there is proof for a family in Tamil Nadu having a picture of Rama being worshiped by them where Rama is seen with bhasma.
There is no proof in the Valmiki Ramayana or other texts on what exact marks Rama, Krishna and other Avataras wore on their forehead. Pictures painted by followers of Madhva and Ramanuja apply the marks of their choice on the forehead of these gods thus showing there is no unanimity in this.
There is also absolutely no basis for the bloggers’ claim that ‘Śhankaracharya did not don the bhasma’. They have relied on a commentary that only alternatively gives the meaning to Padmapada’s word ‘nirasta bhūtim’ as ‘one without the vibhūti’ (contrasted with Lord Śiva) to buttress this claim. That such is not what that word means is easily appreciated when one understands that: While Lord Śiva had the śmaśāna bhasma (ashes of the crematorium) all over his body, from head to foot, Shankarācharya in his human form, just as a vaidika, donned the vibhūti, produced from the agnihotra ritual (śrouta) or by other prescribed (smārta) means and that too in the particular places of the body. There is bhasma dhāraṇa vidhi and mantras for it. The Bhasmajābāla Upaniṣad and other upaniṣads and smṛiti texts are authority for the time-immemorial practice of bhasma dhāraṇa by vaidikas.
This Upaniṣad teaches that Yati-s too have to don the bhasma:
मानस्तोकेन मन्त्रेण मन्त्रितं भस्म धारयेत् ।ऊर्ध्वपुण्ड्रं भवेत्सामं मध्यपुण्ड्रं त्रियायुषम् ॥ १॥ त्रियायुषाणि कुरुते ललाटे च भुजद्वये ।नाभौ शिरसि हृत्पार्श्वे ब्राह्मणाः क्षत्रियास्तथा ॥ २॥ त्रैवर्णिकानां सर्वेषामग्निहोत्रसमुद्भवम् ।इदं मुख्यं गृहस्थानां विरजानलजं भवेत् ॥ ३॥ विरजानलजं चैव धार्यं प्रोक्तं महर्षिभिः ।औपासनसमुत्पन्नं गृहस्थानां विशेषतः ॥ ४॥ समिदग्निसमुत्पन्नं धार्यं वै ब्रह्मचारिणा ।शूद्राणां श्रोत्रियागारपचनाग्निसमुद्भवम् ॥ ५॥ अन्येषामपि सर्वेषां धार्यं चैवानलोद्भवम् ।यतीनां ज्ञानदं प्रोक्तं वनस्थानां विरक्तिदम् ॥ ६॥ अतिवर्णाश्रमाणां तु श्मशानाग्निसमुद्भवम् ।सर्वेषां देवालयस्थं भस्म शिवाग्निजं शिवयोगिनाम् ।शिवालयस्थं तल्लिङ्गलिप्तं वा मन्त्रसंस्कारदग्धं वा ॥
The above verses stipulate the source of the bhasma for various varṇa/aśrama-s. Since Shankaracharya was a Paramahamsa Parivrājaka, and not an ativarṇāśramī, he donned the bhasma that has been produced in the manner stated in the Upaniṣad. From Shankara’s bhāṣya one can deduce the great importance Shankara gave to the observance of rules and following the dharma of one’s āśrama and varṇa. In the Īśāvāsya bhāṣya 8 he says: न हि शास्त्रविहितं किञ्चिदकर्तव्यतामियात् । [Nothing that the scripture enjoins is unworthy of adherence.] There are solutions to the problem of not being able to access the bhasma that is produced as per the method stipulated. A study of the commentary by Upaniṣad Brahmayogin to this and several other upaniṣads will give one the correct vaidika practice. The last cited verse above also says that for ativarṇaśramī the bhasma taken from the crematorium is stipulated. Since Lord Śiva was such a one, he is resplendent with the bhasma of the crematorium
External Evidence for bhasma dhāraṇam by vaidikas:
In the popular ‘sarva darśana sangraha’ of Āchārya Sāyaṇa-Mādhava, 13/14 CE, in the section pertaining to the delineation of Chārvākas (materialists/atheists) there is cited this famous verse as an ‘ābhāṇaka’ (popular saying):
अग्निहोत्रं त्रयो वेदास्त्रिदण्डं भस्मगुण्ठनम्। बुद्धिपौरुषहीनानां जीविका धातृनिर्मिता॥
Agnihotram trayo vedāḥ tridaṇḍam bhasmaguṇṭhanam
Buddhipauruṣahīnānām jīvakā dhātṛnirmitā.
[The practice of agnihotram, belief in and study and recitation of the three Vedas, the holding of the triple-staff (tridaṇḍam) and donning the bhasma – these are created as means of sustenance/survival by the Creator Lord for those who are dull-witted and lack enterprise.]
This verse is cited in the same connection by an even earlier author Kṛṣṇa Misra (12 CE) in his Prabodha Chandrodaya drama too. Even though the verse is a caricature of vaidikas by the materialist (some say this is a verse by Buddhist/Jains caricaturing vaidikas), yet it proves that vaidikas did don bhasma. Since the verse is popular even in the 12 CE, it goes without saying that the vaidikas of an even earlier period too were donning the bhasma as a veda vihita practice.
The Uttararāmacharitam of Mahākavi Bhavabhūti (8 CE) has a description of Lava’s physical appearance, son of Rāma:
चूडाचुम्बितकङ्कपत्रमभितस्तूणीद्वयं पृष्ठतो भस्मस्तोकपवित्रलाञ्छनमुरो धत्ते त्वचं रौरवीम् ।
मौर्व्या मेखलया नियन्त्रितमधो वासश्चमाञ्जिष्ठकं पाणौ कार्मुकमक्षसूत्रवसयं दण्डोऽपरः पैप्पलः ॥२०॥
The compound word highlighted above is explained in the commentary as: Lava’s chest was bearing the sacred, pavitra, insignia, mark, of bhasma. The commentary says that such is the way a Kṣatriya brahmachārin dresses himself.
13-208-55 आयुष्कामो द्विजो देवि धारयेद्भस्य नित्पशः। मोक्षकामी च यो विप्रो भूतिकामोथवा पुनः। पुनरावृत्तिरहितं लोकं सम्प्रतिपद्यते।
The above says: among other things the mokṣa aspirant brāhmaṇa should don the bhasma always. This teaching is given out by Shiva to pārvati in the Mahabhārata – ānuśāsanika parva.
On page 302 line 20, of the smṛti muktāphalam, a dharma śāstra work one can see a prescription of tiryak (horizontal) bhasmadharanam from Bharadwāja:
तिर्यक् त्रिपुण्ड्रं विधिना ललाटे हृदये जले..
Read in the ‘History of Dharmasastra by P. V. Kane’ – the material is available in Volume 2 – Part 1, Page 672-675. It describes both types of Pundradhāraṇa for both Vaisnavas and Śaivas. It gives references from smṛtis too that are relevant to this topic. It also cites the ‘smṛtimuktāphalam’ that gives a lot of details and a sage advice that P.V.Kane too is inclined to cite from this work: ‘Instead of calumnising each other, let the various sects follow what the śiṣṭas of their community do.’
There is the age-old practice of even reciting mantras (sadyojātam…vyometi bhasma…etc. stipulated in the Upanishads related to bhasma-producing and donning) while donning the bhasma. Śaivaite saints, whole lived much earlier to even Shankaracharya, some of whom were Brahmins, were performing agnihotram.
Thus, in the face of incontrovertible evidence in the Śruti, Smṛti, itihāsa and purāṇās and lives of vaidikas, for the prescription and practice of bhasma dhāraṇam by vaidikas, none can succeed in proving that such a practice was not present before and that it is only a recent practice by vaidikas.
Om Tat Sat
Veda Vyāsa’s Loyalty
Veda Vyāsa, the special incarnation of Viṣṇu, the holder of the special post of codifying the Vedas, is ever loyal to the Veda. He expresses his loyalty to the Vedas by depicting the Vedic message through his Puranas and the Mahabharatha. Here is an instance of such expression of his loyalty.
In the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa is narrated an episode:
FIRST ADHYÂYA, FIRST BRÂHMANA.
14:1:1:11. The gods Agni, Indra, Soma, Makha, Vishnu, and the Visve Devâh, except the two Asvins, performed a sacrificial session 1.
14:1:1:22. Their place of divine worship was Kurukshetra.. Therefore people say that Kurukshetra is the gods’ place of divine worship: hence wherever in Kurukshetra one settles there one thinks, ‘This is a place for divine worship;’ for it was the gods’ place of divine worship.
14:1:1:33. They entered upon the session 2 thinking, ‘May we attain excellence! may we become glorious! may we become eaters of food!’ And in like manner do these (men) now enter upon the sacrificial session thinking, ‘May we attain excellence! may we become glorious! may we become eaters of food!’
14:1:1:44. They spake, ‘Whoever of us, through austerity, fervour, faith, sacrifice, and oblations, shall first compass the end of the sacrifice, he shall be the most excellent of us, and shall then be in common to us all.’ ‘So be it,’ they said.
14:1:1:55. Vishnu first attained it, and he became the
most excellent of the gods; whence people say, ‘Vishnu is the most excellent of the gods.’
14:1:1:66. Now he who is this Vishnu is the sacrifice; and he who is this sacrifice is yonder Âditya (the sun). But, indeed, Vishnu was unable to control that (love of) glory of his; and so even now not every one can control that (love of) glory of his.
14:1:1:77. Taking his bow, together with three arrows, he stepped forth. He stood, resting his head on the end of the bow. Not daring to attack him, the gods sat themselves down all around him.
14:1:1:88. Then the ants said–these ants (vamrî), doubtless, were that (kind called) ‘upadîkâ 1‘–‘What would ye give to him who should gnaw the bowstring?’–‘We would give him the (constant) enjoyment of food, and he would find water even in the desert: so we would give him every enjoyment of food.’–‘So be it,’ they said.
14:1:1:99. Having gone nigh unto him, they gnawed his bowstring. When it was cut, the ends of the bow, springing asunder, cut off Vishnu’s head.
14:1:1:1010. It fell with (the sound) ‘ghriṅ’; and on falling it became yonder sun. And the rest (of the body) lay stretched out (with the top part) towards the east. And inasmuch as it fell with (the sound) ‘ghriṅ,’ therefrom the Gharma 2 (was called); and inasmuch as he was stretched out (pra-vrig,), therefrom the Pravargya (took its name).
14:1:1:1111. The gods spake, ‘Verily, our great hero (mahân virah) has fallen:’ therefrom the Mahâvîra pot (was named). And the vital sap which flowed from him they wiped up (sam-mrig) with their hands, whence the Samrâg 1.
14:1:1:1212. The gods rushed forward to him, even as those eager to secure some gain (will do) 2. Indra reached him first. He applied himself to him limb after limb, and encompassed him 3, and, in encompassing him, he became (possessed of) that glory of his. And, verily, he who knows this becomes (possessed of) that glory which Indra is (possessed of).
14:1:1:1313. And Makha (sacrifice), indeed, is the same as Vishnu: hence Indra became Makhavat (possessed of makha), since Makhavat is he who is mystically called Maghavat 4, for the gods love the mystic.
14:1:1:1414. They gave to those ants the enjoyment of food; but, indeed, all food is water, for it is by moistening (the food) therewith that one eats here whatever one does eat.
14:1:1:1515. This Vishnu, the (Soma-) sacrifice, they then divided amongst themselves into three parts: the Vasus (received) the morning-pressing, the Rudras the midday-pressing, and the Âdityas the third pressing.
14:1:1:1616. Agni (received) the morning-pressing, Indra.
Veda Vyāsa, even though he is verily Viṣṇu, true to his loyalty to the Veda, has narrated the above in the Devi Bhāgavatam. He does not feel that ‘None is above Viṣṇu’:
The above narrative shows the Power of Devi over that of Lord Viṣṇu.
Om Tat Sat
Evidence for Viṣṇu being created according to BUB 1.4.11
In the Bṛhadāraṇyaka upaniṣad 1.4.11 there is the mantra about the creation of the Celestial Kṣatriya class: deva-kṣatra. The upaniṣad mantra:
ब्रह्म वा इदमग्र आसीदेकमेव तदेकं सन्न व्यभवत् । तच्छ्रेयोरूपमत्यसृजत क्षत्रं यान्येतानि देवत्रा क्षत्राणीन्द्रो वरुणः सोमो रुद्रः पर्जन्यो यमो मृत्युरीशान इति ।
A sample of such ‘deva kṣatriya-s’ is given in the mantra. Shankaracharya’s Bhāṣya:
[In the beginning this, the Kṣatriya and other castes, was indeed Brahman, identical with that Brahman
(Viraj) who after manifesting Fire assumed the form of that. He is called Br.ahman, because he
identified himself with the Brāhmaṇa caste. One only : Then there was no differentiation into other
castes such as the Kṣatriya. Being one, i.e. without any protector etc. such as the Kṣatriya, he did not
flourish, i.e. could not do his work ‘properly. Hence he, Viraj, thinking, ‘I am a Brahmaṇa, and these
are my duties,’ in order to create duties pertaining to a Brahmaṇa by birth-to glorify himself as a
performer of rites–specially, pre-eminently, projected an excellent form. What is that? ]
Br.up.1.4.11 भाष्यम् –
क्षत्रं क्षत्रियजातिः ; तद्व्यक्तिभेदेन प्रदर्शयति — यान्येतानि प्रसिद्धानि लोके, देवत्रा देवेषु, क्षत्त्राणीति — जात्याख्यायां पक्षे बहुवचनस्मरणात् व्यक्तिबहुत्वाद्वा भेदोपचारेण — बहुवचनम् । कानि पुनस्तानीत्याह — तत्राभिषिक्ता एव विशेषतो निर्दिश्यन्ते — इन्द्रो देवानां राजा, वरुणो यादसाम्, सोमो ब्राह्मणानाम्, रुद्रः पशूनाम्, (in yajurveda 3.4.5 and sayana bhashya). पर्जन्यो विद्युदादीनाम्, यमः पितॄणाम्, मृत्युः रोगादीनाम्, ईशानो भासाम् — इत्येवमादीनि देवेषु क्षत्राणि । (Shankara makes this comment for the word ‘iti’ at the end of the ṛk of the Br.up.1.4.11 shown above. The ‘iti’ has got this meaning of ‘etcetra’ and thereby Shankara says that the deva kṣatras mentioned in the Br.up.1.4.11 is not exhaustive and are only a few and there are several others as well. Thus the ‘ādi’ of the Bhāṣyam is crucial.)
Translation of the Bhāṣya:
The caste called Kṣatriya. This is being pointed out by a reference to its individuals. Those who are well known in the world as Kṣatriya among the gods. The plural is used (in ‘Kṣatriyas’), as in grammar a word denoting
a caste may be optionally in the plural.1 Or because there are many individuals in a caste, the difference is
figuratively transferred to the group. Who are they? This the text answers by mentioning particularly the
anointed ones: Indra, the King of gods; Varuṇa, of the aquatic animals ; the moon, of the Brahmal).as ;
Rudra, of the beasts ; Parjanya, of lightning etc.; Yama, of the Manes ; Death, of disease etc.; and
lsana, of luminaries. These are some of the Kṣatriyas, among the gods. (Shankara makes this comment for the word ‘iti’ at the end of the ṛk of the Br.up.1.4.11 shown above. The ‘iti’ has got this meaning of ‘etcetera’ and thereby Shankara says that the deva kṣatras mentioned in the Br.up.1.4.11 are not exhaustive and are only a few and there are several others as well. Thus the ‘ādi’ of the Bhāṣyam is crucial.)
The two highlighted sentences of the bhāṣya are important in the establishing of Viṣṇu’s birth (creation) in the above Upaniṣad. To find out what Shankara means by ‘. Those who are well known in the world as Kṣatriya among the gods’ we get sufficient information in the Kṛṣṇa Yajur veda samhitā:
3.4.5 अनुवाक 5 अभ्यातानाः
VERSE: 1 अग्निर् भूतानाम् अधिपतिः स माऽवत्व् इन्द्रो ज्येष्ठानां यमः पृथिव्या वायुर् अन्तरिक्षस्य सूर्यो दिवश् चन्द्रमा नक्षत्राणाम् बृहस्पतिर् ब्रह्मणो मित्रः सत्यानां वरुणो ऽपाम्̇ समुद्रः स्रोत्यानाम् अन्नम्̇ साम्राज्यानाम् अधिपति तन् मावतु सोम ओषधीनाम्̇ सविता प्रसवानाम्̇ रुद्रः पशूनां त्वष्टा रूपाणां विष्णुः पर्वतानाम् मरुतो गणानाम् अधिपतयस् ते मावन्तु पितरः पितामहाः परे ऽवरे ततास् ततामहा इह मावत । अस्मिन् ब्रह्मन्न् अस्मिन् क्षत्रे ऽस्याम् आशिष्य् अस्याम् पुरोधायाम् अस्मिन् कर्मन्न् अस्यां देवहूत्याम् ॥
In the above mantra portion a number of devas who are ‘adhipatis’ of certain groups is enumerated. (The mantra is a prayer to all these adhipati devas to protect the supplicant) The entities listed in the above are according to the Sāyana bhāsya available here:
https://archive.org/stream/taittiriya/taittiriya_samhita_sayana_05__2.5.12-3.4.11#page/n283/mode/2up (mantra detailing all deva-kshatras)
The Sāyaṇa Bhashya for the above:
The bhāṣya gives some explanation about the groups for which each deva mentioned in the mantra.
Agni the Head, adhipati, of elements, Indra, of devas, Yama (of….), Vāyu, Sūrya, Chandra, Bṛhaspati, Mitra, Varuṇa, Samudra, Annam, Soma, Savitā, Rudra, adhipati of Paṣus [exactly stated by Shankara in the Br.up.1.4.11 bhāṣyam], Tvaṣṭā, Viṣṇu, adhipati of Parvatas, Maruts, and so on….
For विष्णुः पर्वतानाम् of the Yajurveda, the Sāyaṇa bhāṣyam says: Viṣṇu is the adhipati of parvatas like govardhana.
From the above Veda mantra it is clear that so many deva-adhipatis are there. On closer examination one will find that even this list is not exhaustive. For instance the Vitteśa (Kubera) as adhipati of yakṣas, etc. mentioned in the Bhagavadgita 10th ch. is not in the above list. What the Br.up.1.4.11 mantra lists is a very few names compared to the Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda mantra. One can see several names from the two sources overlapping. That is why Shankara says These are some of the Kṣatriyas, among the gods. The list of deva-kṣatriyas mentioned in the Br.up..1.4.11 is not an exhaustive one; there remain many more than that of that category. The name of Viṣṇu, appearing as one among so many deva-adhipatis in the ‘well-known source’ Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda is a deserving one for inclusion in the Br.up.1.4.11. One cannot object that Viṣṇu has not been included in the Br.up. and therefore it would be wrong to do so. However we have several names in the Yajur veda mantra cited which have been included and there are names from that mantra itself not included in the Br.up.mantra as well. That itself shows that there is no room for any choice on the part of the Br.up.1.4.11 and that there is no valid reason to exclude Viṣṇu from the list even while it is present in the Yajurveda list as one among many devas.
If only Shankara had not made that crucial twin-comment: 1. Of the deva kṣatras being well known in the world (veda) and 2. That the Br.up.1.4.11 list is only representative, ‘upalakṣaṇa’, there would be no knowledge about the fact of only some names, just seven, out of innumerable, that are mentioned in the Br.up.1.4.11 and that there are many more that ought to be included in the mantra in order to get the correct purport of the teaching of the Br.up.1.4.11. Otherwise one will go with the incomplete, wrong, knowledge that there are only these seven deva kṣatras. Of course, for those who have done the Yajur veda adhyayanam of even the samhitā part and have some knowledge of the veda bhāṣyam the considerably longer list of names which includes viṣṇu as the adhipati of parvatas will be quite familiar.
In the sequel are given some references from various sources to substantiate many names and the corresponding group that Shankara has mentioned in the Bhāṣya for the Br.up.1.4.11. The Mahabharata too contains several such names and groups.
For Indra being the King of Devas:
Indra is the adhipati of ‘lokapālas’ (so says the sāyaṇa bhāṣya). This term means ‘devas’ as brought out by:
For Varuna being adhipati of yādasa:
वरुणो यादसाम् BG 10.29
For पर्जन्यो विद्युदादीनाम्
वर्तमानेन पर्जन्योऽग्निर्दीप्यते । अभ्राणि धूमः, धूमप्रभवत्वात् धूमवदुपलक्ष्यत्वाद्वा । विद्युत् अर्चिः, प्रकाशसामान्यात् । BUB 6..2.10
For यमः पितॄणाम् –
परेयिवांसं प्रवतो महीरनु बहुभ्यः पन्थामनुपस्पशानम् ।
वैवस्वतं संगमनं जनानां यमं राजानं हविषा दुवस्य ॥१॥
The bhashyam for the above is available here:
In the Brahmandapurana:
वैवस्वतं पितॄणां च यमं राज्येऽभ्यषेचयत् ॥ २. ८. ८ ॥
[Yama was coronated as the King of pitṛs. ]
The above is similar to the Mahabharatha (Karṇa parva) incident of Tripurasamhāra where Rudra is ‘coronated’ as the pati of ‘paśu-s’.
There are many more ‘rāja-s’ in the above document.
Mahabharata where many ‘adhipatis’ are listed:
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