Posted by: adbhutam | July 11, 2019

Drishti-srishti alluded to by Shankara

Drishti-srishti alluded to by Shankara 

In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.3.31,32 the mantra says:
यत्र वा अन्यदिव स्यात्तत्रान्योऽन्यत्पश्येदन्योऽन्यज्जिघ्रेदन्योऽन्यद्रसयेदन्योऽन्यद्वदेदन्योऽन्यच्छृणुयादन्योऽन्यन्मन्वीतान्योऽन्यत्स्पृशेदन्योऽन्यद्विजानीयात् ॥ ३१ ॥  

सलिल एको द्रष्टाद्वैतो भवत्येष  …32 

 “When in the waking and dream states there is, as it were,  another, then one can see the other, then one can smell the  other, then one can speak to the other, then one can hear the  other, then one can think of the other, then one can touch the  other, then one can know the other.  

32.    “In deep sleep it becomes transparent like water, the witness,  one and without a second. ..”
For the above, the bhashya is:
यत्र यस्मिन् जागरिते स्वप्ने वा अन्यदिव आत्मनो वस्त्वन्तरमिव अविद्यया प्रत्युपस्थापितं भवति, तत्र तस्मादविद्याप्रत्युपस्थापितात् अन्यः अन्यमिव आत्मानं मन्यमानः — असति आत्मनः प्रविभक्ते वस्त्वन्तरे असति च आत्मनि ततः प्रविभक्तेः, अन्यः अन्यत् पश्येत् उपलभेत ; तच्च दर्शितं स्वप्ने प्रत्यक्षतः — ‘घ्नन्तीव जिनन्तीव’ (बृ. उ. ४ । ३ । २०) इति । तथा अन्यः अन्यत् जिघ्रेत् रसयेत् वदेत् शृणुयात् मन्वीत स्पृशेत् विजानीयादिति ॥ 

यत्र पुनः सा अविद्या सुषुप्ते वस्त्वन्तरप्रत्युपस्थापिका शान्ता, तेन अन्यत्वेन अविद्याप्रविभक्तस्य वस्तुनः अभावात् , तत् केन कं पश्येत् जिघ्रेत् विजानीयाद्वा ।  
Translation: Swami Madhavananda:
When, in the waking or dream state, there is something else besides the self, as it were, presented by ignorance, then one, thinking of oneself as different
from that something-although there is nothing different from the self, no! is there any self different from it can see something. This has been shown by a reference to one’s experience in the dream state in the passage, ‘As if he were being killed, or overpowered’ …
When, however, that ignorance which presents things other than the self is at rest, in that state of profound sleep, there being nothing separated from the
self by ignorance, what should one see, smell, or know, and through what?

This bhashya brings to the fore the perception of duality in waking and dream and the non-appearance of duality in deep sleep. So, perception is creation and non-perception is laya.  What is to be noted here is that while the mantra never utters a word about jaagrat or sushupti, Shankara introduces the idea of jaagrat/svapna and sushupti.  
The above is from the book ‘Sridakshinamurti stotram’ Vol.1, p. 213. The section there is: drishti-samasamayaa srishtih. 

Om Tat Sat


A good search possible in ‘Advaita shaaradaa’ resource  

It is well known to scholars/researchers/students that the entire core corpus of Advaita literature has been/being brought under the banner ‘Advaita Sharadaa’ of the Sringeri Sharada Peetham.
In this page
one can see a large list of names of texts. It is possible to make a search for  particular words in each of these texts,  This facility will be of utmost help for students/researchers.  Words like ‘mithyaa, adhyaasa, vivarta, aikyam, samucchaya, tattvamasi, moksha,…’ etc. can be searched in each of these works listed / displayed on the above page. In the ‘anveshanam’ head, on top of the above page as a menu, one can initiate a search across the entire prasthana traya Bhashya of Shankaracharya by choosing ‘sarvam’. Individual text search is also possible on that page. One can see the results delivered on another page as ‘phalitaamshah’ and copy the results for one’s further notes, articles, etc. 
This excellent resource has been developed by Sri C.S.Yogananda and his team under the company name Sriranga Technologies, Mysuru.  They are working hard to include more and more texts to the resource.  The utility of the resource is immense indeed. 
warm regards

Om Tat Sat

Posted by: adbhutam | June 9, 2019

Selections from Barhaspatya sutram

Selections from Barhaspatya sutram

The Bārhaspatya-sūtras (a patronymic of Brhaspati), also Lokāyata (“materialistic”, “atheistic”) sutras is the foundational text of the Cārvāka school of materialist (nastika) philosophy.

Probably dating to the final centuries BC (the Mauryan period),[citation needed] this text has been lost, and is known only from fragmentary quotations.

This short selection highlights some of the vedic/religious practices that prevailed in the very ancient times:

Om Tat Sat

Posted by: adbhutam | June 5, 2019

Three types of ‘Existence’ in Vedanta

Satta trayam in shruti and sutras:  Vidwan Mani Dravid Sastri and another scholar

Satyasya satyam: Paramarthika and vyavaharikam – Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 2.1.20:  सत्यस्य सत्यमिति (प्राणा वै सत्यं तेषामेष सत्यम्) ॥ २० ॥ [The first satyam in the mantra is vyavaharika and the second satyam is paramarthika. Same case with what is there within brackets too. 

Taittiriya Upanishad II.6 : satyam cha anrutam cha satyam abhavat.  Paramarthika Satyam became Vyavaharika (satyam) and Praatibhasika (anrutam). See this article for full details on this Taittiriya mantra:

Mundakopanishat:  We get to see all the three types of ‘satyam’ in this Upanishad:

  1. Paramarthika Satyam   yenaksharam….satyam…..Provacha taam tatvato…..

Mantra : येनाक्षरं पुरुषं वेद सत्यं  1.2.13 Bhashyam: सत्यं तदेव परमार्थस्वाभाव्यादव्ययम् Here the word ‘satyam’ in the mantra refers to Paramarthika satyam.

Also in this mantra 2.1.1 तदेतत्सत्यं यथा सुदीप्तात्पावकाद्विस्फुलिङ्गाः the word ‘satyam’ refers to Paramarthika satyam. The Bhashyam: यदपरविद्याविषयं कर्मफललक्षणम् , सत्यं तदापेक्षिकम् । इदं तु परविद्याविषयम् , परमार्थसल्लक्षणत्वात् । तदेतत् सत्यं यथाभूतं विद्याविषयम् ; अविद्याविषयत्वाच्च अनृतमितरत् । अत्यन्तपरोक्षत्वात्कथं नाम प्रत्यक्षवत्सत्यमक्षरं प्रतिपद्येरन्निति दृष्टान्तमाह. In the beginning the word ‘satyam’ refers to the karma/karma phala that is stated to be vyavaharika (aapekshikam, relative reality) in the Mundaka 1.2.1. The word ‘satyam’ in the mantra 2.1.1 refers to paramarthika satyam, Brahman.

  • Vyvaharika satyam:  Mantra: 1.2.1 तदेतत्सत्यं मन्त्रेषु कर्माणि  Bhashyam: तदेतत् सत्यम् अवितथम् ।….This is called ‘satyam’ because it is a definite (satyam) means to accomplish the desired purushartha.
  • Pratibhasika satyam:  Mantra: 1.3.6: सत्यमेव जयते नानृतं   Bhashya: सत्यमेव सत्यवानेव जयते जयति, नानृतं नानृतवादीत्यर्थः The word ‘anrutam’ denotes praatibhasikam. It is stated to be ‘uttering untruth, lie’. The word ‘satya’ in this mantra denotes ‘speaking truth’.

Sutra and bhashyam: Sutra 2.1.14:  tadananyatvam aarambhana sabdaadibhyaH …..prapancha is mithya (vyavaharika) and brahman is paramarthika  was established with the  vacarambhana shruti (Chandogya).

3rd adhyaya: svapna:  sutra 3.2.3 मायामात्रन्तु कार्त्स्नेनानभिव्यक्तस्वरूपत्वात्.  In fact in the foregoing in the sutras itself the prapancha has been established as mithya. So, what remains to be inquired into now, in the 3rd adhyaya?

In vyavaharika itself a category is stated: pratibhasika

Regarding svapna, the Bhamati has very clearly said: just in order to specify the pratibhasika here the special inquiry is taken up: maayaamaatram…

Bhashyakara also has stated clearly here: this also is mithya alone but since vyavahara is going on uninterrupted we say it is satya (vyavaharika).

Thus the three types of satya are admitted by the Sutrakaara himself.

In the foregoing the Shruti and Sutra pramana for the satta traividhya is shown.

Om Tat Sat

Selections from ‘Gaathaa Saptashati’ – Shiva performs Sandhya Vandanam

// Gatha Saptasati

The book Gahasattasai in Prakrit, is more popularly known as Gatha Saptasati in Sanskrit. It is also known as Gahakosa which is a collection of 700 Maharashtri Prakrit lyric and exotic verses par excellence. Since Prakrit had been a dialect of the masses, it was supposed to have a better emotional appeal than Sanskrit. This work contains the best selected lyrical poems, independent, unconnected with each other, full of meaning, abounding in suggestive or figurative speech rather than in laksana and abhidha, with depth of emotional feelings. It is not a small wonder that Prakrit poetic composition had reached such a peak in the first or second century A.D.The compiler of Gahasattasai is Hala, the Kavi-vatsala (literally ‘affectionate’ towards the poet), who was the lord of Kuntala janapada.Hala, the sixteenth ruler of the Satavahana line reigned sometime during the first half of 1st  c.A.D. So, the social picture of culture and civilization which was revealed in the GathaSaptasati may be regarded as relating approximately between 2nd  c.B.C. and 2nd c. A.D.  
….The popularity of the love songs of this anthology is revealed by the fact that it had at least six versions and eighteen commentaries. Jain authors also have commented on it. // 

The work is an expression of the Sringara Rasa. 
In this compilation, of some 2000 years old, the first verse is about Shiva performing the morning Sandhya vandanam.  
Beginning of the work: praatah sandhyaa of Shiva:  In the first 100:

पशुपते रोषारुणप्रतिमासङ्क्रान्तगौरीमुखचन्द्रम्।
गृहीतार्घपङ्कजमिव सन्ध्यासलिलाञ्जलिं नमत।।  
Obeisance to Pashupati’s anjali (arghya) which is like a red lotus blooming upon the moon shining. The simile is: In the arghya water in Shiva’s hands, his face is reflecting. This is akin to a lotus bud. On that reflection, Gowri’s moon-like face is getting reflected. The effect is: the lotus bud is blossoming.   
While the book starts with this mangala shloka, it ends with the scene of Shiva performing the evening sandhya vandanam.  
In the second 100 we have a similar depiction of Lakshmi-Narayana in sringaara rasa:

तं नमत यस्य वक्षसि लक्ष्मीमुखं कौस्तुभेऽभिसङ्क्रान्तम्।
मृगहीनं शशिबिम्बं विलोक्यते सूर्यबिम्ब इव।।५१।।१  

The Sringara rasa is demonstrated with Lakshmi and Narayana. Obeisance to Narayana in whose Kaustubha gem (on his chest), the face of Lakshmi is reflected. It is as though a moon devoid of the deer-mark in it is getting reflected in the sun.  
विपरीतरतावस्थायां यस्य वक्षसि कौस्तुभे मणौ अभिसङ्क्रान्तं प्रतिबिम्बितं लक्ष्मीमुखं सूर्यबिम्बेऽनुसङ्क्रान्तं मृगपरिहीनं निष्कलङ्कं शशिबिम्बमिव दृश्यते, तं नमतेत्यर्थ:। भगवन्तौ लक्ष्मीनारायणावपि परस्परप्रेमानुबन्धसुन्दरं बन्धविशेषबन्धुरं च सुरतसुखमुपभुञ्जाते, किमन्ये संसारिण इति नायकौ प्रति स्वाकूतमभिसूच्यते  

In the fourth 100:  Lakshmi, during the samudra mathanam, even as she emerges from the ocean, being looked at by the Deva-s with the longing as to ‘who will be her consort?’.  is stated as an upamaa:

प्रेक्षन्तेऽनिमिषाक्षा: पथिका हलिकस्य पिष्टपाण्डुरिताम्।
दुहितरं दुग्धसमुद्रोत्तरल्लक्ष्मीमिव सतृष्णा:। 

अनिमिषनयना देवा दुग्धसमुद्रादुत्तरन्तीमत एव पाण्डुरितां लक्ष्मीं यथापश्यन् तथा सतृष्णा: सलालसा: पथिका: पिष्टेन तण्डुलगोधूमादिचूर्णेन पाण्डुरितां हालिकस्य तनयाम-निमिषा: सन्त: प्रेक्षन्ते। तथा च-अस्माक मध्ये कस्य वा भवेल्लाभसौभाग्यमिति यथा तेऽचिन्तयं-स्तथैतेऽपीति पथिकौत्सुक्येन हालिकसुताया: सौन्दर्यातिशयो ध्वन्यते। ‘हालिकसुतामपि सतृष्णं पश्यतामेषां गृहे वासो न देय:’ इति सुहृदं प्रति नागरिकस्योक्तिरिति केचित्। 
In the fifth 100:
सन्ध्यासमये जलपूरिताञ्जलिं विघटितैकवामकरम्।
गौर्यै हि कोषपानोद्यतमिव नमत प्रमथनाथम्।।४८।।१
Obeisance to Shiva who, during the sandhya time, with his two hands full of water to be offered as arghyam, is thwarted by the left hand being drawn away in the manner of Gowri (who resides in his left side) is wanting to drink from the vessel-like hand. Now, Shiva remains with just the right hand full of water as though he is doing aachamanam.  
सन्ध्यानुष्ठानसमये। जलेन पूरितोऽञ्जलिर्यस्य तम् किन्तु विघटितैकवामकरम्, विघट्टित: पृथग्भूत: एको वाम: करो यस्य। अर्धनारीश्वरत्वेन वामभागस्थितगौरीकस्यापि सन्ध्यासमये गौरीसम्बन्धी वाम: कर: पृथग्भूत इत्यर्थ:। एकस्मिन् हस्ते आचमनार्थं गृहीतसलिलमिति यावत्। गौर्यै गौर्या: कृते कोषपानरूपं दिव्यं कर्तुमुद्यतमिव प्रमथनाथं शिवं नमत। 
In the sixth 100:

बलेर्वाचाबन्धे आश्चर्यं निपुणत्वं च प्रकटयन्।
सुरसार्थकृतानन्दो वामनरूपो हरिर्जयति।।
Hari, in the form of Vamana, is victorious since he, with mere control of speech, won over Bali and the entire heavenly world. 
वामनरूपधारी हरिर्जयति। वाङ्नियमनमात्रेण स्वर्गराज्यं बलेराहृतवानेवं किल तन्नैपुण्यमित्यन्यावतारापेक्षया स एव सर्वोत्कर्षेण वर्तते इति वाच्योऽर्थ:। अनुरणनेन तु- बलिनो बलवतो गृहजनस्य वाचया वचनेन निरुत्तरीकरणे नैपुण्यं प्रकटयन्, सुष्ठु रसार्थवद्भिर्वचनैर्जनिताखिलप्रीति: वामनरूपो न्यग्भावितात्मा अवसरमभिलक्ष्य विनयमुपगत इत्यर्थ:। एतादृशो हरि: परदारापहारी स ते कामुको जयतीति ध्वन्यमानोऽर्थ: 

Rudra’s three eyes:
रुद्रस्य तृतीयनयनं पार्वतीपरिचुम्बितं जयति।।] 
Here, the poetic comparison of the three-eye phenomenon which is really ferocious, as in the destruction of the Tripura-s (asuras), is of no use in the soft love with Girija, the daughter of Himavan. Hence, the original word ‘Rudra’ has been replaced by the word ‘Shambhu’ (he who bestows jou, ‘sham’):
शम्भोस्तृतीयनयनं गिरिजापरिचुम्बितं जयति।।५५।।१  
[The third, ferocious eye, is caressed by Girija, in love] 
अत्र गाथायाम्- रतौ रसावेशवशात्सञ्जातो य: सम्भ्रमस्तद्वयात्पार्वत्या वसनमपनीतमिति शम्भो: कामावेगलोलतां ध्वनयितुं सम्भ्रमपदमुपात्तम्। यदि तु मूलपदाङ्कानुसरण एवाग्रहस्तर्हि- ‘रतिकेल्यपहृतनिवस.’ इत्यादि पाठ्यम्। मूलकारस्य रुद्रपदं तु-लोकत्रितयसंहारज्वलित-नेत्रज्वलनस्य भगवतो भर्गस्य भैरवतास्मारकं गिरीन्द्रनन्दिनीनिधुवनकेलिसमये सुतरामनुपयोगि, प्रत्युत रसमार्गविरोधीति शम्भुपदेन (शं रतानुकूल्यरूपं सुखं भावयतीति) परिवर्तितमिति तयोस्तारतम्यं सुधीभिरेवाकलनीयम्। पार्वतीगिरिजापदे तु समानार्थके एवेति न काचिद्विप्रति-पत्तिरित्यलमधिकसूक्ष्मविचारचर्चया। 

 End of the work: saayam sandhyaa of Shiva:

स्फुरिताधरं मुधैव हि विगलितमन्त्रं हरं नमत।।१००।।  

In this concluding verse, the Sandhya vandanam scene is enacted. Shiva, seeing the reflection of Gowri in the water in his hands, with his lips trembling overcome by love, is missing the mantras (to be chanted at that juncture).
Thus, in this extremely ancient work we see the depiction, even though in the context of Sringara rasa, of both the divine couples, Parvati-Parameshwara and Lakshmi-Narayana. Since the scene is Sandhyavandanam, Samudra mathanam, Vaamanaavataara, etc. which are all acceptable to vaidikas, we see that there have existed authors in the very distant past who have been votaries of both Shiva and Vishnu bhakti in equal measure. This reflects the theme of the Veda, Smritis, Mahabharata, Ramayana, etc. The tradition Shankaracharya handed down to humanity also has taken forward and nurtured to this day this very theme. We see this theme depicted in abundance in the works of Shankaracharya, be it the Vishnu Sahasra Nama Bhashyam or his vast stotra literature including the Prapancha saara.  
Om Tat Sat

The ‘Naaraayaneeyam’ is extremely famous as a devotional discourse authored by the Advaitin Sri Narayana Bhatta of Kerala. The object of stuti in this work is Lord Sri Krishna, the presiding deity of the famous temple at Guruvayoor, Kerala. 
To the uninitiated it might appear that this is the very same Vishnu who is held to be the Brahman by sectarian schools. However, a proper study of the work with the help of the commentaries would reveal that the Brahman of this text is fundamentally different and opposed to the god of the non-advaitins.
For the Vedantin, Brahman is the one that takes, out of Maya and its three gunas, the three forms of the Trimurtis, it is also immanent in and transcends the Trimurtis. Brahman is non-different from the Trimurtis who are its own essential manifestations. Such an idea is anathema and reprehensible for the bhakti schools which maintain an absolute difference across the Trimurtis. Their Brahman, in the view of the Vedantin is a finite one, being subject to vastu-pariccheda.  
In this verse of the 90th dashaka, the author says:

ष्वयि तव हि महत्त्वं सर्वशर्वादिजैत्रम् ।
स्थितमिह परमात्मन् निष्कलार्वागभिन्नं
किमपि यदवभातं तद्धि रूपं तवैव ॥१॥  

O Supreme Being! The episodes of Vrikaasura, Sage Bhrigu, Thy Mohini Avataar and the Ambareesh episode only proves, here, that Thy majesty and superiority supersedes over all other deities like Shiva and others.Thou are non-different from Thy Nishkala (partless) form and Thy Sakala (part) forms like Shiva, Brahamaa, and shine in an indescribable manner as the essence of all.

The above verse holds that not only Brahman is Nishkalam, Nirgunam, but also non-different from its sakala, saguna, forms. The word ‘abhinnam’ in the verse shows that. This abhinnatvam is vehemently denied by non-advaitic schools.

What is even more, it is the very same One Brahman that obtains as the Trimurti-s in their respective regions that are collectively called Satyaloka. This is being stated in the next verse:

मूर्तित्रयेश्वरसदाशिवपञ्चकं यत्
प्राहु: परात्मवपुरेव सदाशिवोऽस्मिन् ।
तत्रेश्वरस्तु स विकुण्ठपदस्त्वमेव
त्रित्वं पुनर्भजसि सत्यपदे त्रिभागे ॥२॥  

The Shaivaas speak of five aspects with Brahmaa Vishnu Shiva Ishwara and Sadaashiva. Here Sadaashiva is Thy own self the Supreme Being. Thou alone are Ishwara the Lord of Vaikuntha. The three forms of Trinity, Thou alone assume in the three parts of Satyaloka.  

The above idea of Sadashiva being verily non-different from Vishnu is unacceptable to non-advaitins. Also, the idea of One Brahman being the resident of the three aspects of the Satya loka is also not admissible to them. Only the Vedantin, based on the Turiya of the Mandukya Upanishad will be able to state the above. 

Narayana Bhatta stresses the idea of Murti-traya repeatedly:

तत्रापि सात्त्विकतनुं तव विष्णुमाहु-
र्धाता तु सत्त्वविरलो रजसैव पूर्ण: ।
सत्त्वोत्कटत्वमपि चास्ति तमोविकार-
चेष्टादिकञ्च तव शङ्करनाम्नि मूर्तौ ॥३॥  

The form of Vishnu, among the Trimuti, is a manifestation of pure Sattva. Brahmaa is the manifestation of abundance of Rajas with a trace of Sattva. Whereas, Thy form known as Shankara has an abundance of Sattva but Tamas expresses itself in its activities.

The above statement of Vishnu/Brahman manifesting the tamas and rajas as Shiva and Brahma is rejected by non-advaitins as their concept of Brahman which is a deity, cannot be depicted as endowed with tamas and rajas. This also distinguishes at the very root the Vishnu of Narayana Bhatta from the deity of the vaishnava sects. 

The idea of Brahman transcending the Trimurtis is stated here:

तं च त्रिमूर्त्यतिगतं परपूरुषं त्वां
शर्वात्मनापि खलु सर्वमयत्वहेतो: ।
शंसन्त्युपासनविधौ तदपि स्वतस्तु
त्वद्रूपमित्यतिदृढं बहु न: प्रमाणम् ॥४॥  

  Thou do transcend the Trinity and are the Supreme Being.  The word ‘trimurtyatigatam’ says this. Thou are the essence of all and Shaivas worship Thee alone as Shiva with worshiping norms, as described. That too is Thy form alone. We have many proofs in support of this truth.

A Vishnu who is above another Vishnu is not admissible in non-advaitic schools. Shankara in his Vishnu Sahasra Nama bhashya has commented upon the term ‘Keshava’  with an etymological meaning, alternatively, as ‘He under whose control exist Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva.’  It is this ‘Turiya Vishnu/Keshava’ that is taught by Veda Vyasa in the Mahabharatha as “Satyam Satyam punah Satyam Uddhrtya bhujam uchayate . Vedaat Sastram Param naasti na daivam Kesavaat param”

Vishnu being under the control of another Vishnu is not admitted by anyone but Shankara.

Thus, the above sample citations from the Narayaniyam prove beyond doubt that the concept of ‘Vishnu’ as Brahman is totally different between Advaitins and non-Advaitins. 

See also:

warm regards

Was Bhishma ashamed of speaking of the glories and 1000 names of Shiva?

Sri Vadiraja Tirtha (of the Madhva school), in his ‘Lakshalankara’, a commentary on the Mahabharata, says that Bhishma, feeling ashamed of narrating the glories of Shiva, turned to Krishna to do the same when Yudhishthira sought to know Shiva’s glories and the 1000 names. 
In this article this topic is discussed:


Posted by: adbhutam | May 22, 2019

Core Vedanta aspects in the Mahabharatha


[The following section is present in the newly brought out ‘Vaishnava paatha’ of the Mahabharata from the Palimaaru (Madhva) maTha.]
In the Aanushasana parva of the Mahabharata, the Chapter 45 contains a description of the various aspects of Brahman. Uma, the consort of Shiva, explains the jagatkaaraNatva, paratva, etc. of Shiva. In this discourse, a number of core Vedantic doctrinal aspects are brought out by the Vedantin commentator NilakanTha.  

दुर्विज्ञेयो महादेवो दुराधारो दुरन्तकः।
दुराबाधश्च दुर्ग्राह्यो दुर्द्दश्यो ह्यकृतात्मभिः।।

Ambaa, the consort of Shiva, says: Mahadeva is extremely difficult to be realized. NilakanTha’s (N) comments: It is difficult to know even through the shaastra. Even if known through the scripture, it is difficult to retain in the manas (duraadhaaraH). Even if retained in the manas, owing to the obstacles such as laya, vikshepa, etc. (detailed in the Yoga shaastra and Gaudapada Karikaa), one is battered. There are mischievous bondages (durantakaH) and owing to the engrossment in heavenly pleasures, He is durgraahya, extremely difficult to be grasped owing to the lack of supreme vairagyam. And even in the presence of vairagya, dispassion, He is difficult to be perceived, durdrshyah. Just as there are obstacles with regard to Atman contemplation such as laya, etc. there is the possibility of laya, etc. even with regard to prakriti (prakriti laya). 

यस्य रूपाण्यनेकानि प्रवदन्ति मनीषिणः।
स्थानानि च विचित्राणि प्रासादाश्चाप्यनेकशः।।

His forms are countless, say the Knowers. His abodes too are wonderful and His temples too are many. N says: Having stated His nirvisheSha nature in the earlier verse, His savisheSha forms are being stated now.

को हि तत्त्वेन तद्वेद ईशस्य चरितं शुभम्।
कृतवान्यानि रूपाणि देवदेवः पुरा किल।
क्रीडते च तथा शर्वः प्रसीदति यथाच वै।।  

Who indeed has known in truth the Lord’s auspicious exploits and His forms the Lord of lords assumed in the past!!   And the way Sharva plays and delights!! 

हृदिस्थः सर्वभूतानां विश्वरूपो महेश्वरः।
भक्तानामनुकम्पार्थं दर्शनं च यथाश्रुतम्।
मुनीनां ब्रुवतां दिव्यमीशानचरितं शुभम्।।

Maheshwara, the vishvarupa, the whole creation is his form, resides in the heart of all beings. He gives darshanam to his devotees out of compassion. 

कृतवान्यानि रूपाणि कथितानि दिवौकसैः।
अनुग्रहार्थं विप्राणां शृणु वत्स समासतः।।

तानि ते कीर्तयिष्यामि यन्मां त्वं परिपृच्छसि।।

N says: It is for the sake of blessing the devotee that Brahman, even though devoid of any form, takes a form. [This is in correspondence with Shankara’s words:   स्यात्परमेश्वरस्यापि इच्छावशात् मायामयं रूपं साधकानुग्रहार्थम् । (1.1.vii.20) (Ishwara, out of compassion, takes on, by His Maya, a form to grace the spiritual aspirant.) [The context in the BSB is that Brahman is devoid of any form but takes up forms to help the aspirant.  In the Kenopanishad bhashya too Shankara lists several deities Vishnu, Ishvara, Indra, Prana, etc. as upasya as Brahman] 

ब्रह्मविष्णुसुरेन्द्राणां रुद्रादित्याश्विनामपि।
विश्वेषामपि देवानां वपुर्धारयते भवः।। 

[Bhava takes the form of gods such as Brahma, Vishnu, Indra, Rudras, Adityas, Ashvini-s, etc.] N says: All forms right from that of Brahmaa are that of Shiva.   

नराणां देवनारीणां तथा प्रेतपिशाचयोः।
किरातशबराणां च जलजानामनेकशः।।
Humans, the divine damsels, the ghosts, spirits, hunters, forest-dwellers, aquatic beings – all are His forms.

करोति भगवान्रूपमाटव्यशबराण्यपि।
कूर्मो मत्स्यस्तथा शङ्खः प्रवालाङ्कुरभूषणः।।

The tortoise, first, the conch…etc. are his forms. N says: the Kurma and Matsya avataras are indicative of the other incarnations. Time is also Shiva alone. 

यक्षराक्षससर्पाणां दैत्यदानवयोरपि।
वपुर्धारयते देवो भूयश्च बिलवासिनाम्।।

व्याघ्रसिंहमृगाणां च तरक्ष्वृक्षपतत्त्रिणाम्।
उलूकश्वशृगालानां रूपाणि कुरुतेऽपि च।।

हंसकाकमयूराणां कृकलासकसारसाम्।
रूपाणि च बलाकानां गृध्रचक्राङ्गयोरपि।।

करोति वा स रूपाणि धारयत्यपि पर्वतम्।
गोरूपं च महादेवो हस्त्यश्वोष्ट्रखराकृतिः।।

छागशार्दूलरूपश्च अनेकमृगरूपधृक्।
अण्डजानां च दिव्यानां वपुर्धारयते भवः।।

दण्डी छत्री च कुण्डी च द्विजानां वारणस्तथा।
षण्मुखो वै बहुमुखस्त्रिनेत्रो बहुशीर्षकः।।

अनेककटिपादश्च अनेकोदरवक्त्रधृत्।
अनेकपाणिपार्श्वश्च अनेकगपसंवृतः।।

In the above verses the variety of forms of Shiva is listed. All beings of all kinds are He alone. The idea of ‘sahasra shirsha purusha,….’ is also depicted here. All hands, feet, stomachs, faces/mouths, are all His. We get a feeling of reading the Vishvarupa adhyaya of the Bhagavadgita.  

ऋषिगन्धर्वरूपश्च सिद्धचारणरूपधृत्।
भस्पपाण्डुरगात्रश्च चन्द्रार्धकृतभूषणः।।
सर्वभूतान्तकः सर्वः सर्वलोकप्रतिष्ठितः।।

सर्वलोकान्तरात्मा च सर्वगः सर्ववाद्यपि।
सर्वत्र भगवान्ज्ञेयो हृदिस्थः सर्वदेहिनाम्।।

यो हि यं कामयेत्कामं यस्मिन्नर्थऽर्च्यते पुनः।
तत्सर्वं वेत्ति देवेशस्तं प्रपद्य यदीच्छसि।।

नन्दते कुप्यते चापि तथा हुंकारयत्यपि।
चक्री शूली गदापाणिर्मुसली खड्गपट्टसी।।

भूधरो नागमौञ्जी च नागकुण्डलकुण्डली।
नागयज्ञोपवीती य नागचर्मोत्तरच्छदः।।

हसते गायते चैव नृत्यते च मनोहरम्।
वादयत्यपि वाद्यानि विचित्राणि गणैर्युतः।।

वल्गते जृम्बते चैव रुदते रोदयत्यपि।
उन्मत्तमत्तरूपं च भाषते चापि सुस्वरः।।

अतीव हसते रौद्रस्त्रासयन्नयनैर्जनम्।
जागर्ति चैव स्वपिति जृम्भते च यथासुवम्।।

जपते जप्यते चैव तपते तप्यते पुनः।
ददाति प्रतिगृह्णाति युञ्जते ध्यायतेऽपि च।।

वेदीमध्ये तथा यूपे गोष्ठमध्ये हुताशने।
दृश्यते दृश्यते चापि बालो वृद्धो युवा तथा।।

क्रीडते ऋषिकन्याभिर्ऋषिपत्नीभिरेव च।
ऊर्ध्वकेशो महाशेफो नग्नो विकृतलोचनः।।

गौरः श्यामस्तथा कृष्णः पाण्डुरो धूमलोहितः।
विकृताक्षो विशालाक्षो दिग्वासाः सर्ववासकः।।

अरूपस्याद्यरूपस्य अतिरूपाद्यरूपिणः।
अनाद्यन्तमजस्यान्तं वेत्स्यते कोस्य तत्त्वतः।।
Who indeed can know the extent of the one who has no beginning and no end at all? The theme of Lingodbhava is hinted in these lines. 

हृदि प्राणो मनो जीवो योगात्मा योगसंज्ञितः।
ध्यानं तत्परमात्मा च भावग्राह्यो महेश्वरः।।
N says: Shiva alone is the pratyagaatmaa, the innermost true self of all jivas – this is stated by the word ‘hridi’ – in the heart.  The five koshas are being stated by the words hridi, etc. annamaya, pranamaya, manomaya, vijnana and the term Yogatma is the blending of chit and achit that is the ananda maya kosha. [Advaitins hold that the Anandamaya kosha is the seat of karana shariram, ignorance.] The word Yogasamjnitah means the one who is free of the five koshas, the tvam padaartha, the innermost essence of the jiva. The word ‘dhyanam’ shows the means to arrive at the true self free of the koshas. The word Maheshwara is the mayavi, the weilder of maya (Shvetashvataropanishad mantra ‘maayaam tu prakritim vidyaat, maayinam tu maheshvaram’ is meant here) , the Tat padartha. ‘Bhaavagraahya’ means Brahman is grasped, realized, perceived by bhaava, contemplation culminating in the subtle akhandakara vritti. Is it grasped as an object, knowable? No, it is verily the subject, pratyagaatmaa. By this verse, the mahavakya ‘ayam atma brahma’ (mandukya upanishad, atharva veda) is indicated.   

वादको गायनश्चैव सहस्रशतलोचनः।

The musical instrument players and the songs/singers are also Shiva, Brahman alone. N cites the mantra ‘brahma daasaah, brahma daashaah’ which means ‘Brahman is the slaves, the gamblers/fishermen…’ which Shankara has cited in the Brahma sutra bhashya 2.3.43:  तथा ह्येके शाखिनो दाशकितवादिभावं ब्रह्मण आमनन्त्याथर्वणिका ब्रह्मसूक्ते — ‘ ब्रह्म दाशा ब्रह्म दासा ब्रह्मैवेमे कितवाः’ इत्यादिना ; दाशा य एते कैवर्ताः प्रसिद्धाः, ये च अमी दासाः स्वामिष्वात्मानमुपक्षपयन्ति, ये च अन्ये कितवा द्यूतकृतः, ते सर्वे ब्रह्मैव — इति हीनजन्तूदाहरणेन सर्वेषामेव नामरूपकृतकार्यकरणसङ्घातप्रविष्टानां जीवानां ब्रह्मत्वमाह ; तथा अन्यत्रापि ब्रह्मप्रक्रियायामेवायमर्थः प्रपञ्च्यते — ‘ त्वं स्त्री त्वं पुमानसि त्वं कुमार उत वा कुमारी । त्वं जीर्णो दण्डेन वञ्चसि त्वं जातो भवति विश्वतोमुखः’ (श्वे. उ. ४ । ३) इति, ‘ सर्वाणि रूपाणि विचित्य धीरो नामानि कृत्वाभिवदन्यदास्ते’ इति च ; ‘ नान्योऽतोऽस्ति द्रष्टा’ (बृ. उ. ३ । ७ । २३) इत्यादिश्रुतिभ्यश्च अस्यार्थस्य सिद्धिः । चैतन्यं च अविशिष्टं जीवेश्वरयोः, यथाग्निविस्फुलिङ्गयोरौष्ण्यम् ।  
Shankara says above: These Upanishadic passages declare that all forms of all beings, even the lowly ones, is of Brahman alone thereby bringing out the jiveshvara aikya.  N paraphrases the above in the MB commentary. 

एकवक्त्रो द्विवक्त्रश्च त्रिवक्त्रोऽनेकवक्त्रकः।।

N explains here: One-face is the praajnaa of the third paada stated in the Mandukya upanishad:   ह्यानन्दभुक्चेतोमुखः प्राज्ञस्तृतीयः पादः | Two-faced is: the taijasa which comprises of the sukshma sharira and the jiva. Three-faced refers to the earlier two plus the gross body. That way all the three states are covered by this shloka in the MB.       

तद्भक्तस्तद्गतो नित्यं तन्निष्ठस्तत्परायणः।

The devotee of Shiva is stated here: He is completely taken over by devotion, and reminds us of the Bh.Gita 5.17:  expression: तद्बुद्धयस्तदात्मानस्तन्निष्ठास्तत्परायणाः । गच्छन्त्यपुनरावृत्तिं ज्ञाननिर्धूतकल्मषाः ॥ १७ ॥   [Those who are given to the complete devotion, in intellect, manas, and totally His alone, go to the state of liberation never to return to samsara by the Jnana that purifies them of all defects.]

Thus we find here in this small section, as a sample, Veda Vyasa teaching the Paratvam of Shiva just as he has done in several places the Paratvam of Vishnu. The core Vedantic teachings embedded in the above verses are brought out eminently by NilakanTha, the advaitin. 

भज पुत्र महादेवं ततः प्राप्स्यसि चेप्सितं।।

Ambaa concludes: O son, pray to Mahadeva and you will certainly get what you have desired.

Om Tat Sat

Siddhanta Traya Sarah is a unique book that renders the three siddhanta-s namely Advaita, Vishishtadvaita and Dvaita in a condensed form. MM Sri R.Krishnamurthy Sastrigal has compiled, rather translated from the originals, in Tamil for the benefit of those who cannot approach the three doctrines in their original form.

Swami Vidyaranya’s ‘Vaiyasika Nyaya maalaa’ which gives in verse form the essence of each adhikaraNam of the Brahma sutras is the source for the Advaita section.

Vidwan Kapisthalam Sri Desikachar’s ‘shaariraka adhikarana ratnaavali’ is the source for the section on Vishishtadvaita.

Sri Raghavendra Tirtha’s ‘Nyaya Muktavali’ is the source book for the Dvaita siddhanta section in this book.

The book is unique in this respect that it offers in one book, of 500 plus pages in Tamil, an overview of the three doctrines.

The attached 13 images contain the commendation letters of Vidwan Mani Dravid Sastrigal in Sanskrit, Vidwan K.E.Devanathan’s Tamil article on his appreciation of the rendering of the Vishishtadvaita section (by pointing out some ten instances where the author’s excellence is very noteworthy) and Dr.Haridasa Bhatta’s letter in Sanskrit is a note of commendation for the Dvaita section and the entire book. The blurb has a profile of Sri Krishnamurthy Sastrigal.

Sri Krishnamurthy Sastrigal’s note tracing the genesis of the book and its completion scans several interesting incidents, in Tamil.

As several persons have suggested that the book deserves a translation into English and Kannada and perhaps Telugu and Hindi, I request those who can take up this work, from the three doctrines, to come forward. This way, the burden will get distributed. Those who are interested may kindly contact me off line to discuss the modalities.

I request members who know Tamil to kindly buy this invaluable book which is available at a subsidised price of Rs.300. The book, hard-bound, is very elegantly produced. Each siddhanta is printed in a different color. Copies can be had at the residence of Sri Krishnamurthi Sastrigal, close to the Madras Sanskrit College, Mylapore, Chennai 600 004.

Here is the link to the book release function held at Chennai where a summary of the Brahmasutra bhashya according to Advaita and Vishishtadvaita has been delivered by Vidwans Sri Mani Dravid Sastrigal and Sri K.E.Devanathan in Tamil. Dr.Haridas Bhatta (Dvaita vedanta) could not be present at the function due to personal reasons. Prof.K.Ramasubramanian (esteemed member of BVP), the illustrious son of Sri Krishnamurthy Sastrigal, has given the introductory talk. It is a very enjoyable function in deed:

Kindly share the information with all those who are interested in the Book.

See the images uploaded as a file in this link:…

warm regards

Posted by: adbhutam | May 17, 2019

The ‘Vishnu’ of Shankara and that of Ramanuja

The ‘Vishnu’ of Shankara and that of Ramanuja

Here is an article, of 11 pages, which is a short study based on literary evidence from the writings of both Shankara and Ramanuja that shows the idea of ‘Vishnu’ is different for both these Acharyas. This article is not intended to invoke polemical discussions. The sole aim is to bring to the fore the fact of fundamental difference in the perspectives of both the Acharyas with regard to the concept of ‘Vishnu’.
The download link is:

warm regards

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