Posted by: adbhutam | October 14, 2021

‘Dvaita accepts body-adhyasa’ 

Here is an updated article on the above topic.  New evidences are added including a short video clip of the late Pejawar Swamiji on taking the body as the self is bhrama, mithyaajnana:

regards

Posted by: adbhutam | October 13, 2021

The whole of the Vedantic essence in just one mantra

The heart of Vedanta ‘Brahma Satyam jagat mithya, jivo brahmaiva na aparah’ (Brahman alone is the transcendental Real and the apparent world is not real and the individual jiva is none other than Brahman)  is encapsulated in the mahavakya mantra of the Chandogya Upanishad:

स य एषोऽणिमैतदात्म्यमिदं सर्वं तत्सत्यं स आत्मा तत्त्वमसि श्वेतकेतो
Sage Uddalaka addresses his son Shvetaketu: The subtle Sat, Brahman, is the fundamental cause of this creation. This is the Atma. You are That.’This part of the above passage //The subtle Sat, Brahman, is the fundamental cause of this creation.This is the Atma//  teaches, based on another passage of this very Upanishad –  स य एषोऽणिमैतदात्म्यमिदं सर्वं तत्सत्यं स आत्मा which means ‘Have you known that one whose knowledge amounts to knowing everything?’ and replies giving the analogies of clay – clay products, gold – gold products and iron – iron products.  The transformations are mere names and insubstantial as names and forms but the substance in them is their material cause, clay, etc.

Based on this analogy, the mantra part स य एषोऽणिमैतदात्म्यमिदं सर्वं तत्सत्यं स आत्मा  (The subtle Sat, Brahman, is the fundamental cause of this creation. This is the Atma’) teaches: Brahman alone is real and the world is unreal. 
The other part of the mantra तत्त्वमसि श्वेतकेतो means ‘the jiva is none other than Brahman’
In this manner, the Chandogya Upanishad, one among the principal ten, teaches, just in one sentence, the seminal purport of the entire Vedanta.  
The statement ‘Brhama Satyam……….’ is established in the Niralambopanishat:
https://sanskritdocuments.org/doc_upanishhat/niralamba.html

Om Tat Sat

Posted by: adbhutam | October 1, 2021

How indeed can Brahma jnanam eradicate jiva’s samsara?

The very fact that Badarayana wants Brahma jijnasa to be undertaken implies that ‘Only on the condition that the jiva is in truth Brahman, the knowledge of Brahman can be said to dispel samsara.’ How is this? All schools accept that the idea of oneself being the body-mind complex is an adhyasa. Therefore samsara is due to this fundamental adhyasa: taking the body to be the Atman. This is due to one’s not knowing one’s true svarupam. Now, if this situation is to be remedied, one logically has to get to know who one is. But the Brahmasutra says ‘enquiry into Brahman is to be undertaken.’ How can Brahma jnanam eradicate samsara? If I am ignorant of a pot, I should get to know the pot and not the cloth. Cloth knowledge will not remedy pot-ignorance. Brahma jnana cannot dispel Atma vishayaka ajnanam. Thus, the undeniable implication of Badarayana is: the Jiva is in truth Brahman. Only on this condition and on no other condition can Brahma jnanam dispel Atma ajnana engendered samsara. Therefore it is only the Advaita Bhashya that is the true commentary of the Brahma sutras. The tenets of Brahma satyam jagat mithya jivo brahmaiva na aparah is eminently established in the sutras.


 ‘शास्त्रदृष्ट्या तूपदेशो वामदेववत्’ (ब्र. सू. १ । १ । ३०)  Here the sutra teaches the identity of jiva is Brahman.
‘तदनन्यत्वमारम्भणशब्दादिभ्यः’ (ब्र. सू. २ । १ । १४)  This sutra teaches that the world has no existence apart from its cause Brahman.


These are only indicative; many other sutras too establish the Advaitic tenet of: brahma satyam, jagat mithya, jiva brahmaiva..

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Om Tat Sat

Posted by: adbhutam | September 18, 2021

Samsara due to Anadi avidya – Srimadbhagavata

English:

Passages from Shankara’s Bhashya with translation are provided. 

Download the article here: (Translated to English by Sri Ajay Majumdar)
https://adbhutam.files.wordpress.com/2021/09/anadi-avidya-samsara-bhagavatam-eng.pdf

A Kannada version of this article is also available:
https://adbhutam.files.wordpress.com/2021/09/anadi-avidya-samsara-bhagavatam-kan.pdf

Om

In the 13th chapter of the Bh.Gita, which is easily the core Vedanta chapter, verily a miniature of the Adhyasa bhashya, we discern a systematic evolution of the Advaitic thought spread over a few verses.
The chapter begins by declaring that the objectified body, kshetram, is the known and the knower thereof, the kshetrajna, is the subject.  Here the known-knower idea is taught.
श्री भगवानुवाच
इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते।
एतद्यो वेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विदः।।13.1।।
The Blessed Lord said O son of Kunti, this body is referred to as the ‘field’. Those who are versed in this call him who is conscious of it as the ‘knower of the field’.

In the very next verse the knower-consciousness in every body is taught as non-different from Brahman.
क्षेत्रज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोर्ज्ञानं यत्तज्ज्ञानं मतं मम।।13.2।।

And, O scion of the Bharata dynasty, understand Me to be the ‘Knower of the field’ in all the fields. In My opinion, that is Knowledge which is the knowlege of th field and the knower of the field.

Further down, the chapter specifies the entire world of the body-mind complex and the outside world of objects as the kshetram – a shift from the first verse where only the body was stated to be the kshetram. This shift is to make the definition of the kshetram all-inclusive.
महाभूतान्यहङ्कारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च।
इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पञ्च चेन्द्रियगोचराः।।13.5।।
The great elements, egoism, intellect and the Unmanifest itself; the ten organs and the one, and the five objects of the senses;

इच्छा द्वेषः सुखं दुःखं सङ्घातश्चेतनाधृतिः।
एतत्क्षेत्रं समासेन सविकारमुदाहृतम्।।13.6।।
Desire, repulsion, happiness, sorrow, the aggregate (of body and organs), sentience, fortitude – this field, together with its modifications, has been spoken of briefly.

Then the means to know the Knower, kshetrajna are specified. Later the Kshetrajna, Brahman-Consciousness, is explained.  The cause of bondage, ignorance, is stated. 
Towards the end, the ‘knowing’ taught in the first verse, undergoes a phenomenal shift: it is actually illuminating that is knowing:
यथा प्रकाशयत्येकः कृत्स्नं लोकमिमं रविः।
क्षेत्रं क्षेत्री तथा कृत्स्नं प्रकाशयति भारत।।13.333।।
As the single sun illumines this whole world, similarly, O descendant of the Bharata dynasty, the Knower of the field illumines the whole field.

This is by no means an ordinary shift; it changes the very perspective of one’s conception of the Atman: it is not knowing the objective world but it is actually illuminating the entire knower-knowing-known triad that is actually what the Kshetrjna is for. This shift is necessitated by the fact that even the knowing process, which includes the knowing instruments and the knowing act and the object known and the knowledge arising thereof – all this duality is to be further encapsulated as just a known – kshetram, the illumined, and the illuminer-consciousness, the kshetrajna.
Even this duality needs to be transcended to get at the Advaitic Tattva. This is accomplished in the very last verse of the chapter:क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा।
भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षं च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम्।।13.34।।
Those who know thus through the eye of wisdom the distinction between the field and the Knower of the field, and the annihilation of the Matrix of beings – they reach the Supreme.
The grand climax is this culmination of the evolution of the Advaitic thought: There is just the Consciousness and nothing that It is conscious of: the whole of kshetram is ‘annihilated’, annulled, as mithya.  Now the Kshetrajna-Cosnciousness remains as the non-dual Truth.  
Thus the evolution is well articulated: From knowing > illuminating>just being. The kshetram too undergoes this evolutionary process: From the ‘known’ object > the illumined object > the annihilated, non-existent, object. 

Ekam eva advitiyam satyam.  This idea is demonstrated in the Upadeshasahasri by Bhagavatpada in the following three verses.  The commentary of Sri Rama Tirtha is also appended:

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Swami Jagadananda’s English translation:

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Om Tat Sat

In the following Vishnu Puranam verse, Brahman is stated to be One and Many. Sridhara Swamin comments: One as the unmanifest and Many in the manifest forms.


विष्णुपुराणम्/प्रथमांशः/अध्यायः २
https://sa.wikisource.org/s/1smu

एकानेकस्वरूपाय स्थूलसूक्ष्मात्मने नमः ।
अव्यक्तव्यक्तरूपाय विष्णवे मुक्तिहेतवे ॥३॥

We find a fine similarity in the ancient Tamil Saiva song: https://ta.wikisource.org/s/6m01
Manikkavachagar says:

நமச்சிவாய வா அழ்க! நாதன் தாள் வாழ்க! Namachchivaaya vaaazhga! naadhan thall vaazhgal
இமைப்பொழுதும் என்நெஞ்சில் நீங்காதான் தாள் வாழ்க! Imaippozhudhum ennengjil neenggaadhan thallvaazhga!
கோகழி ஆண்ட குருமனிதன் தாள் வாழ்க! Kõgazhi aannda gurumannithan thaall vaazhga!
ஆகமம் ஆகிநின்று அண்ணிப்பான் தாள் வாழ்க! Aaga mam aaginindiu annnnippaan tbalı vaazhga!

In this song, the following line is the one which is in perfect tune with the Vishnu Puranam verse cited above:
ஏகன் அனேகன் இறைவன் அடிவாழ்க!
Egan anēgan irraivan adi vaazhga!

The meaning given to the Tamil line is also the same as the one given for the Vishnu Puranam verse. That which is by default One alone takes countless forms in the creation.

In the Brahma sutra bhashya, in the Bhagavata/Pancharatra adhikaranam, Shankara cites a Chandogya passage in support of the doctrine of this school: 2.2.42 तत्र यत्तावदुच्यते — योऽसौ नारायणः परोऽव्यक्तात्प्रसिद्धः परमात्मा सर्वात्मा, स आत्मनात्मानमनेकधा व्यूह्यावस्थित इति — तन्न निराक्रियते, ‘ स एकधा भवति त्रिधा भवति’ (छा. उ. ७ । २६ । २) इत्यादिश्रुतिभ्यः परमात्मनोऽनेकधाभावस्याधिगतत्वात्

There alone, in the bhashyam for 2.2.44, Shankara observes:

न चैते भगवद्व्यूहाश्चतुःसंख्यायामेवावतिष्ठेरन् , ब्रह्मादिस्तम्बपर्यन्तस्य समस्तस्यैव जगतो भगवद्व्यूहत्वावगमात् ॥ ४४ ॥

It is not that the manifestations of Bhagavan are restricted to just four; the entire creation consisting of Brahmaa up to the smallest creature, is known from the Shruti to be the forms of Bhagavan.

Thus, we have such a fine correspondence across the Shaiva, Vaishnava and the Upanishadic streams.

Om

Posted by: adbhutam | September 11, 2021

A few Advaita tenets in the Shiva Puranam

In this chapter  https://sa.wikisource.org/s/igk     of the Shiva Purana we see some interesting Advaitic tenets:


श्रीसुबह्मण्य उवाच ।।
अद्वैतशैववादोऽयं द्वैतन्न सहते क्वचित् ।।
द्वैतं च नश्वरं ब्रह्माद्वैतम्परमनश्वरम् ।। ३ ।।
सर्वज्ञस्सर्वकर्ता च शिवस्सर्वेश्वरोऽगुणः ।।
त्रिदेवजनको ब्रह्मा सच्चिदानन्दविग्रहः ।। ४ ।।
स एव शंकरो देवस्स्वेच्छया च स्वमायया ।।
संकुचद्रूप इव सन्पुरुषस्संबभूव ह ।।५।।
कलादि पञ्चकेनैव भोक्तृत्वेन प्रकल्पितः ।।
प्रकृतिस्थः पुमानेष भुङ्क्ते प्रकृतिजान्गुणान् ।। ६ ।।


Advaita, which holds Shiva to be the Supreme Brahman, does not tolerate Dvaita. Dvaita is perishable while Brahma-Advaita is eternal. The Sarvajna, Sarvakarta Shiva is Nirguna. Brahman, who engendered the Trimurtis, is an embodiment of Sat Chit Ananda. 


The above is a reference to the Ahtarva shikha statement that the Trimurtis emerge from Shambhu:  ब्रह्मविष्णुरुद्रेन्द्रास्ते सम्प्रसूयन्ते.


And the Shiva Purana verse which paraphrases the above by specifying the name to Shiva: TrayaaNAm janakaH = the Progenitor of the Trimurtis.:https://sa.wikisource.org/s/bww


त्रिनेत्रं त्रिगुणाधारं त्रयाणां जनकं प्रभुम् ।
स्मरन्नमः शिवायेति ललाटे तत्त्रिपुण्ड्रकम् ॥ २९॥ 


Here is a verse from this very chapter of the Shiva Purana:


ब्रह्मा विष्णुश्च रुद्रश्च महेश्वरसदाशिवौ ।।
ते हि साक्षाच्छिवस्यैव मूर्तयः श्रुतिविश्रुताः ।।२१।।


which also says that the Trimurti-s are forms of Maheshwara alone. This also reminds us of Sayana’s words: सायण says for the name ‘trayambaka’:


त्रयाणां ब्रह्मविष्णुरुद्राणाम् अम्बकं पितरम् – ie., the father of Brahma, Vishnu & Rudra. [The Sayana Bhashya for the Rg.Veda mantra is attached. 59th सूक्तं of 7th मण्डलं from ऋग्वेदः .. The Rsi for this sUkta is मैत्रवरुणिः वसिष्ठः ].


This idea of the Trimurtis emerging from a higher Tattva is not alien to Advaita. For, the cosmic functions of creation, etc. is still within creation and the Para Brahman is what transcends creation.    


Of His own Will He becomes the jiva, assuming the attributes of Prakriti, becomes a bhokta.  [This is reminiscent of the Bh.G.13th ch. verse: पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङ्क्ते प्रकृतिजान्गुणान् । कारणं गुणसङ्गोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु ॥ २१ ॥


Purusha, not discriminating himself from Prakriti, experiences the effects thereof and this is the cause of his taking up various births.]  


This is in tune with the Nrisimha Tapini Upanishat:

स वा एष भूतानीन्द्रियाणि विराजं देवताः कोशांश्च सृष्ट्वा प्रविश्यामूढो मूढ इव व्यवहरन्नास्ते माययैव तस्मादद्वय एवायमात्मा सन्मात्रो नित्यः शुद्धो बुद्धः सत्यो मुक्तो निरञ्जनो विभुरद्वयानन्दः परः प्रत्यगेकरसः प्रमाणैरेतैरवगतः सत्तामात्रं हीदं सर्वं सदेव पुरस्तात्सिद्धं हि ब्रह्म

   From the above it is clear that that Brahman which has created the entire world, has also ‘entered’ every body as the jiva and is displaying jiva-dharma-s – अमूढो मूढ इव मायया एव.  Since this jiva is Brahman alone, there is nothing wrong in the Shruti showing all the Brahma-dharmas as applicable to the jiva too. So, nityatva, shuddhatva, satyatva, muktatva, etc. all apply to the jiva in his true state of Brahman.

 
Sayana cites this passage while commenting on the Purusha Sukta statement: सर्वाणि रूपाणि विचित्य धीरः नामानि कृत्वा अभिवदन् यदास्ते..which is what is meant by the above passage.  Brahman alone appears as the Jiva.  Shankara has cited a verse (unidentified so far) in the VSN Bhashya: 


स्वमायया स्वमात्मानं मोहयन्द्वैतमायया । गुणाहितं स्वमात्मानं लभते च स्वयं हरिः ॥ 
[By his own Māyā, deluding himself with the illusion of dvaita, Hari Himself comes to see himself endowed with guṇas.] 


Of course, all this is in tune with the BG 13th chapter statement of Kshetrajna – Ishwara identity:क्षेत्रज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत ।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोर्ज्ञानं यत्तज्ज्ञानं मतं मम ॥ २ ॥

Krishna says: Know Me to be the knower of the kshetra, consciousness, in all the bodies. 
Thus, the jiva consciousness in every body is non-different from Brahman. 
This would be possible only if the Purusha identifying with the Prakriti and experiencing the effects thereof is true. 
The following is a clear statement of Karya-Karana abheda: Advaita alone accepts this:

श्रीसुब्रह्मण्य उवाच ।।
तस्माद्वेति समारभ्य भूतसृष्टिक्रमे मुने ।।
ताञ्छृणुष्व महाप्राज्ञ सावधानतया द रात् ।।२४।।
जातानि पञ्च भूतानि कलाभ्य इति निश्चितम्।।
स्थूलप्रपञ्चरूपाणि तानि भूतपतेर्वपुः ।।२५।।
शिवतत्त्वादि पृथ्व्यन्तं तत्त्वानामुदयक्रमे।।
तन्मात्रेभ्यो भवन्तीति वक्तव्यानि क्रमान्मुने।।२६।।
तन्मात्राणां कलानामप्यैक्यं स्याद्भूतकारणम्।।
अविरुद्धत्वमेवात्र विद्धि ब्रह्माविदांवर ।। २७ ।।
स्थूलसूक्ष्मात्मके विश्वे चन्द्रसूर्य्यादयो ग्रहाः ।।
सनक्षत्राश्च संजातास्तथान्ये ज्योतिषां गणाः ।।२८।।
ब्रह्मविष्णुमहेशादिदेवता भूतजातयः ।।
इन्द्रादयोऽपि दिक्पाला देवाश्च पितरोऽसुराः ।।२९।।
राक्षसा मानुषाश्चान्ये जंगमत्वविभागिनः ।।
पशवः पक्षिणः कीटाः पन्नगादि प्रभेदिनः ।। 6.17.३० । 
The Universal identity: The Shruti pramana:
सर्वं ब्रह्मेत्युपासीत सर्वं वै रुद्र इत्यपि।।
श्रुतिराह मुने तस्मात्प्रपञ्चात्मा सदाशिवः ।।३४।।
अष्टत्रिंशत्कलान्याससामर्थ्याद्वैतभावना।।
सदाशिवोऽहमेवेति भावितात्मा गुरुः शिवः।।३५।।

Everything is Brahman: Says the Shruti. Hence Brahman, Shiva, is to be seen as the entire creation itself. One has to contemplate: I am Sadashiva. 


That is ShivAdvaita bhAva:त्वं शिवो हि शिवाचारी सम्प्राप्ताद्वैतभावतः ।।
विचरँलोकरक्षायै सुखमक्षयमाप्नुहि ।। ४८ ।।


There are many such ideas in this part of the Shiva Puranam. 


तत्त्वमस्यादिवाक्यैर्या बोध्यते परमेश्वरी ।।
अनन्तकोटिब्रह्माण्डनायिकायै नमो नमः ।। ३८ ।।
Shiva purana, Uma Samhita chapter 50

Here, the Para Shakti is praised as the one ‘known through the Upanishadic passages such as Tat tvam asi..’
In the Shiva Puranam https://sa.wikisource.org/s/t6f    there is a stuti of Brahma and Vishnu of Shiva.  In this context it is stated that Vishnu secured five mantras and performed the japa of the same:

पुनर्मृत्युंजयं मन्त्रं पञ्चाक्षरमतः परम् ।।
चिंतामणिं तथा मंत्रं दक्षिणामूर्ति संज्ञकम् ।। ४८ ।।
ततस्तत्त्वमसीत्युक्तं महावाक्यं हरस्य च ।।
पञ्चमंत्रांस्तथा लब्ध्वा जजाप भगवान्हरिः ।। ४९ ।। 


The five mantras are: Mrutyunjaya, Panchakshari, Cintamani, Dakshinamurti and Tattvamasi Mahavakya.  
Then he did this stuti of Shiva:


विश्वतः पादवन्तं तं विश्वतोक्षिकरं शिवम् ।।
ब्रह्मणोऽधिपति सर्गस्थितिसंहारकारणम् ।। ५२ ।।


Shiva who is ‘sahasra paat, sahasraaksha, sahasra kara (hands), who is the Lord of Brahma and is the Cause of the creation, sustenance and resolution.


The English translation can be seen here:  https://archive.org/details/SivaPuranaJ.L.ShastriPart1/page/n213/mode/2up
We have already seen that the Garuda Purana has a chapter on the ‘Aham Brahma Asmi’ elaborately explained:  https://drive.google.com/file/d/1zePbxX1s9XFoHT69nXEgw3j2j316A9AT/view?usp=sharing

Om Tat Sat

Posted by: adbhutam | August 22, 2021

The ‘Nirvana ShaTkam’ in the Bhagavadgita 13th Chapter

The ‘Nirvana ShaTkam’  (NS)of Shankaracharya is a short text of six verses full of the method of contemplation of the Self.  Here is a short article which captures the ideas of the NS from the various verses in the Bh.Gita 13th Chapter:

Everywhere, translation in English is given for the original Sanskrit texts.

Om

Posted by: adbhutam | August 17, 2021

The heart of Harivamsha

The heart of Harivamsha

These verses are encountered while reading about the ‘greatness’, mAhAtmya, of Mahabharata and Harivamsha:

https://sa.wikisource.org/s/1d7d
वेदे रामायणे (चैव) पुण्ये भारते भरतर्षभ ।
आदौ चान्ते च मध्ये च हरिः सर्वत्र गीयते ।। ९५ ।।

Everywhere in the Veda, Ramayana and Mahabharata, Hari is hailed.

https://sa.wikisource.org/s/1dd2
वैशम्पायन उवाच
ब्रह्मविष्णुमहेशानां हरिवंशं जगुर्वपुः ।
शब्दब्रह्ममयं विद्धि हरिवंशं सनातनम् ।। ६ ।।

The Harivamsha (an appendix to the Mahabharata), is the embodiment of Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesha.

That Hari who is hailed everywhere, is non-different from the Trimurthi-s. If Hari is different, then the Brahma lakshanas ‘Satyam, Jnanam, Anantam’ taught in the Upanishad will not apply to him. How? ‘Anantam’, Infinite, is being non-different from everything. If Brahman is different from anything else, then it would be subject to the defect of vastu pariccheda and hence will not qualify to be the Upanshadic Brahman. The ‘abhava’ of Hari in Brahma and Rudra and vice versa will be unavoidable rendering Hari a-pUrNa.

The Vishnu purana teaches that Vishnu is non-different from the Trimurt
is:

सृष्टिस्थित्यन्तकरणीं ब्रह्मविष्णुशिवात्मिकाम् ।
स संज्ञां याति भगवानेक एव जनार्दनः ॥ १,२.६६ ॥

One Janardana Tattva alone, owing to the tri-functions of creation, etc. gets the name Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva.

जुषन् रजो गुणं तत्र स्वयं विश्वेश्वरो हरिः ।
ब्रह्माभूत्वास्य जगतो विसृष्टौ संप्रवर्तते ॥ १,२.६१ ॥
सृष्टं च पात्यनुयुगं यावत्कल्पविकल्पना ।
सत्त्वभृद्भगवान्विष्णुरप्रमेयपराक्रमः ॥ १,२.६२ ॥
तमोद्रेकी च कल्पान्ते रुद्ररूपी जर्नादनः ।
मैत्रेयाखिलभूतानि भक्षयत्यतिदारूणः ॥ १,२.६३ ॥
भक्षयित्वा च भूतानि जगत्येकार्णवीकृते ।
नागपर्यङ्कशयने शेते च परमेश्वरः ॥ १,२.६४ ॥

The Vishnu Purana, considered a ‘sattva’ purana, says so. The above verses very clearly say that (the rajas and tamo gunas detested by Vaishnavas as never admissible for Vishnu) Vishnu, due to the ascendance of Rajo guna engages in creation and by the profusion of tamoguna becomes the annihilator of the creation. Thus, by no means one can say Vishnu is untouched by these two gunas and is by default only sattva. But the very Vishnu purana also says above that even sattva guna is assumed, taken on, by Vishnu to become the sustainer/maintainer. That Vishnu is truly nirguna/gunatita is what the above verses imply.

Hence, the classification of Puranas into sattva, etc. based on an imagined difference across the Trimurtis is against the Veda. The Vayu/prana who is held to be Jivottama, is created by Rudra as per the Kaivalyopanishad. Brahma (whose position Vayu is stated to be attained in the future kalpa) is taught as being created and graced with the Vedic knowledge by Rudra as per the Shvetashvatara Upanishad. The Atharva Shikha Upanishad says that the Trimurtis emerge from Shambhu. The Atharva Shira Up. describes the Vishva Rupa of Rudra.

If it is held that the Shambhu and Rudra in the above cases are none other than Vishnu, then the question arises as to why those who proclaim that Hari is Sarvottama have not chosen to say ‘Rudra is Sarvottama’, for such a proclamation too should be sufficient to convey their intent? This calls the lie of their claim ‘Rudra and Shambhu’ indeed refer to Hari only’.

May be an image of 3 people

Om Tat Sat

Contributed by Sri Krishna Kashyap at BVP forum.

Here is a two-page document in English on a dialogue, 70 years ago, between HH the Kanchi Maha Periyava and MM Sri Kothimangalam.S.Varadacharya (who passed away recently at a very ripe age of 99). The thrust of this dialogue is: Hari and Hara are fundamentally Pure Consciousness and the vision of this erases all difference and acrimony. These are the wise words of the above scholar.The pdf can be downloaded here:

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