Posted by: adbhutam | April 18, 2019

Negating the Five Differences, ‘Pancha Bheda-s’

In the Vishnu sahasra nama bhashya, Sri Bhagavatpada has cited a large number of passages to deny  the five types of differences (that non-advaitins, especially Madhvas, admit in absolute terms). These are: jiveshvara bheda, jiva-jiva bheda, jiva-jaDa bheda, jaDa-jaDa bheda and jaDeshvara bheda.  The images for these citations are presented in the file that can be downloaded here:

Om Tat Sat

Posted by: adbhutam | April 17, 2019

A short selection from the Manasollasa of Someshwara III

A short selection from the Manasollasa of Someshwara III

//The Mānasollāsa, also known as Abhilashitartha Chintamani, is an early 12th-century Sanskrit text composed by the Kalyani Chalukya king Someshvara III, who ruled in present-day South India. It is an encyclopedic work covering topics such as polity, governance, ethics, economics, astronomy, astrology, rhetoric, veterinary medicine, horticulture, perfumes, food, architecture, sports, painting, poetry and music. The text is a valuable source of socio-cultural information on 11th- and 12th-century India.//

Excerpts from this book covering the deities worshiped at that time are collected and presented here:

Om Tat Sat


Posted by: adbhutam | April 13, 2019

Siva-Rama darshanam on Ramanavami

Siva-Rama darshanam on Ramanavami
In the Aranyaka Parva of the Mahabharata there is a rendering of the Ramayana by Marakandeya. In a verse describing Rama chasing the golden deer (Maareecha), to take on him, the comparison of Rudra chasing the deer that is a disguise of Brahma:

स धन्वी बद्धतूणीरः खड्गगोधाङ्गुलित्रवान् | 

अन्वधावन्मृगं रामो रुद्रस्तारामृगं यथा ||१९||
The story behind the ‘Brahmaa-deer’ is:
  “How Mrigasira became a constellation”
“Brahma (the Creator) had a daughter who was very beautiful and to whom he was sexually attracted.  His daughter sensed his attraction so she took the form of a deer and ran away.  Brahma then took the form of a stag and chased her across the heavens.  When Rudra (aka Shiva) found out what was happening he cut off the head of the stag in order to prevent the incestuous relationship from taking place.  The stag’s head became the nakshatra of Mrigashira”.
There are many instances/verses in the Valmiki Ramayanam too where the valor of Rama is compared with that of Rudra.
There are fine Shiva-stutis in this chapter of the Mahabharata such as –
रुद्रं सत्कर्मभिर्मर्त्याः पूजयन्तीह दैवतम् | शिवमित्येव यं प्राहुरीशं रुद्रं पिनाकिनम् ||२४|| भावैस्तु विविधाकारैः पूजयन्ति महेश्वरम् ||२४||

[People, by their noble deeds worship Rudra who is
known by the name Shivam. By a variety of
sentiments people worship Him.]
Veda Vyasa has immortalized the Shiva-Vishnu inseparable identity by innumerable
instances/verses, one most popular of these being:
रुद्रो नारायणश्चैव सत्त्वमेकं द्विधा कृतम्।
लोके चरति कौन्तेय व्यक्तिस्थं सर्वकर्मसु।। 12-350-27a 12-350-27b.
[Rudra and Narayana are only two manifestations of One Principle…….]
Sridhara Swamin captures the purport of the Veda thus:
माधवोमाधवावीशौ सर्वसिद्धिविधायिनौ। वन्दे परस्परात्मानौ परस्परनुतिप्रियौ॥

I bow to Mādhava and Umādhava (Shiva) who are both ‘Isha-s’ Supreme Lords. They are capable of bestowing all accomplishments (to their devotees). They are both the selves of each other and both love to engage in the stuti of each other.

Shankara, after citing several such verses from Veda Vyasa’s works in the commentary to the Vishnu Sahasra nama concludes:  इत्यादिवाक्यानि एकत्वप्रतिपादकानि – these statements are establishing the unity, ekatva, of all beings including the gods Shiva-Vishnu and Trimurtis.

Om Tat Sat


An Advaita-friendly selection from NilakanTha’s commentary to the SSS
In this short selection from NilakanTha’s commentary to the Shiva Sahasra Nama of the Mahabharata we get a glimpse of several seimnal Vedantic concepts along with a treat of Hari-Hara abheda.  Citations from Shankara’s bhashyam is also provided in a few places. The file can be downloaded at:

warm regards
Posted by: adbhutam | April 3, 2019

Bhasma dharana and Linga archana – Mahabharata

Bhasma dharana and Linga archana – Mahabharata

In the Anushasanika Parva 13, in chapter 247 there is a conversation between Shiva and Parvati. It is a small chapter where the Pashupata Yoga is described. Shiva says with respect to Bhasma:

रक्षार्थं मङ्गलार्थं च पवित्रार्थं च भामिनि।
लिङ्गार्थं चैव भक्तानां भस्म दत्तं मया पुरा॥ 13-247-14 (91207)
तेन संदिग्धसर्वाङ्गा भस्मना ब्रह्मचारिणः।
जटिला मुण्डिता वाऽपि नानाकारशिखण्डिनः॥ 13-247-15

[NilakanTha has cited the first verse above in his commentary to the Siva Sahasra Nama (‘bhasmagopta’, with a variation: laanChanaartham instead of lingaartham) of the Mahabharata]

[For the sake of protection, auspiciousness, purity, O beloved, for identity (mark), of the devotees, in the yore the bhasma was ordained by Me. Applying it all over their bodies (in the prescribed manner), brahmacharins, vanaprasthas or sannyasins (of tonsured head) and those sporting a variety of tufts….

स्थापितं त्रिषु लोकेषु शिवलिङ्गं मया मम।
नमस्कारेण वा तस्य मुच्यन्ते सर्वकिल्बिषैः॥ 13-247-20..

[In all the three worlds I have consecrated the Shiva Linga. Even by prostrating to it one is freed of all demerits.]
And a detailed method of offering worship to the Shiva Linga is stated.

एतत्ते सर्वमाख्यातं योगं पाशुपतं महत्।

[I have rendered the exalted Pashupata Yoga in its complete form, O Devi.]

The above verses are taken from the Kumbhakonam edition:…/mb…/mahabharata-k-13-sa.html

//This e-text is based on the `Southern Recension’ of the Mahābhārata, edited by Krishnacharya 1906–1914. Prof. Shrinivasa Varakhedi worked on this with the support of his research team members, Prof. K. V. Ramakrishnamacharyulu, Prof. Amba Kulakarni, Prof. Prahladachar, members of MSP Bangalore and many others. Dr. Dominik Wujastyk converted the files to utf-8 IAST encoding and Patrick Mc Allister converted them into a single XML file for the SARIT project in 2012.//

मद्भक्ता न विनश्यन्ति मद्भक्ता वीतकल्मषाः।
मद्भक्ताः सर्वलोकेषु पूजनीया विशेषतः॥ 13-247-35 (91228)
मद्द्वेषिणश्चि ये मर्त्या मद्भक्तद्वेषिणश्च वा।
यान्ति ते नरकं घोरमिष्ट्वा क्रतुशतैरपि॥ 13-247-36 (91229)

Shiva says: My devotees never perish; My devotees are free of taints. My devotees are worthy of especial worship in all the worlds. Those people who hate me or my devotees will attain to horrible hell even if they have performed hundreds of vedic yajnas.

warm regards

Some interesting excerpts from Uttara KaanDa of Ramayana

In the Valmiki Ramayana, Uttara Kanda, the great event of Ashvamedha Yaga performed by Rama is described in very great detail. A few selections from this episode are given in the article that is available here:



Posted by: adbhutam | March 28, 2019

Hari-Hara abheda: Tulasi Das one with Veda Vyasa

Hari-Hara abheda: Tulasi Das one with Veda Vyasa

In the Ramacharita Manas of Goswami Tulsi Das occurs this verse:

शंकर प्रिय मम द्रोही,शिव द्रोही मम दास.
ते नर करहिं कल्प भर, घोर नरक मंह वास. [रामचरित मानस – लंकाकांड – दोहा २].

Meaning of the above ‘doha’ is:
राम जी के सागर पर सेतु बनाने से पहले रामजी कहते हैं की
जो राम भक्त हैं और शिव का द्रोह करते हैं अथवा शिव भक्त हैं राम का द्रोह करते हैं ऐसे नर कल्प भर घोर नरक में वास करते हैं.

Lord Ram says that the person, who is my devotee but against Shiva (regarding him inferior) or is a Shiva devotee and is against me (regarding me inferior), will dwell in hell forever.

These words of Tulasi Das reflect the several verses of Veda Vyasa which have been cited by Shankara in the Vishnu Shasra nama bhashyam:
Bhaviṣyottara purāṇa :

Maheśvara (Śiva) says:

विष्णोरन्यं तु पश्यन्ति ये मां ब्रह्माणमेव वा ।

कुतर्कमतयो मूढाः पच्यन्ते नरकेष्वधः ॥

[Those fools who, devoid of proper thinking, consider Me and Brahmā as different from Viṣṇu, will be baked in the lowly hells.] This idea is reflected in a famous Tamil saying: ariyum aranum onnu, ariyadavar vaayile mannu.

ये च मूढा दुरात्मानो भिन्नं पश्यन्ति मां हरेः ।

ब्रह्माणं च ततस्तस्माद् ब्रह्महत्यासमं त्वघम् ॥

[Those fools, wicked ones, by seeing Me and Brahmā as different from Hari are committing the heinous sin of brahmahatyā.]

One can recall a similar verse in the Śrīmadbhāgavatam (Dakṣayajña section) as said by Viṣṇu: such jiva-s will not attain liberation.

Harivamṣa 3.88. 60, 61, 62 which are addressed by Maheśwara during the Kailāsa yātra episode:

नामानि तव गोविन्द यानि लोके महान्ति च ।

तान्येव मम नामानि नात्र कार्या विचारणा ॥

[O Govinda, your esteemed names alone are mine as well; no doubt need to be had in this regard] There Veda Vyasa, through Shiva, conveys that all the names of Viṣṇu, including the name ‘Nārāyaṇa’ are that of Śiva. Thus the thousand names of Viṣṇu are also those of Śiva since there is no difference in name and sense between the pair Hari and Hara.

त्वदुपासा जगन्नाथ सैवास्तु मम गोपते ।

यश्च त्वां द्वेष्टि भो देव स मां द्वेष्टि न संशयः ॥

[The worship/meditation of You, O Gopati, let that be meditation on me too. He who hates you O Deva, hates me too, undoubtedly.]

Harivamśa verses, spoken by Maheśvara (Śiva) to Vishnu:

अहं त्वं सर्वग देव त्वमेवाहं जनार्दन ।

आवयोरन्तरं नास्ति शब्दैरर्थैर्जगत्त्रये ॥ (3.88.60)

[O, the all-pervading one, I am Thee, and Thou are me alone. There is no difference between the two of us either by word or meaning in all the three worlds.]

Thus we see that only Vedantins are capable of composing and citing verses of this genre.

Om Tat Sat

Posted by: adbhutam | March 25, 2019

Excerpts from the ‘lost’ kaaThaka recension

The ‘lost’ kAThaka shaakhaa has yielded a set of srauta and grihya sutras. An excerpt from these and other texts that remain only as quotations in other works reveals to us that from the most ancient times vaidikas worshiped both Vishnu and Shiva through various karma-s. We also get a glimpse of the status of Gayathri, as the Shakti worshiped by the Trimurti-s.

The file can be downloaded from here:



Posted by: adbhutam | March 20, 2019

The Advaita Vasudeva Tattva

The Advaita Vasudeva Tattva

इन्द्रियाणि मनो बुद्धिः सत्त्वं तेजो बलं धृतिः। वासुदेवात्मकान्याहुः क्षेत्रं क्षेत्रज्ञ एव च।१३६।।

[The jiva (observer), all that is observed, sense (and motor) organs, manas, intellect, body, strength, energy and courage are all verily Vasudeva.]
It is significant that the 13th chapter of the Bh.Gita lists what constitutes ‘kshetram’ (observed) and what is the kshetrajna, the observer jiva.
In the above verse that occurs at the end of the Vishnu sahasra nama, we have the special statement that both the kshetra and the kshetrajna are none other than Vasudeva. In other words, the ‘atma’ of the kshetram (prapancha) and the kshetrajna (jiva) is ‘Vasudeva’.
This takes us to the other crucial vedic statement: स य एषोऽणिमैतदात्म्यमिदꣳ सर्वं तत्सत्यꣳ स आत्मा तत्त्वमसि श्वेतकेतो of the Chandogya 6th chapter.
This mantra says: The most subtle Tattva is the Atma of this entire observed universe (idam). That is the Truth, abaadhitam,   तदेव सदाख्यं कारणं सत्यं परमार्थसत् । अतः स एव आत्मा जगतः प्रत्यक्स्वरूपं सतत्त्वं याथात्म्यम् That Sat, Existence, is the Cause of the world and hence that is the Atma and therefore the Truth, essence, of the world. And the mantra says, you, the jiva, O Shvetaketu, are That tattva which is the Atma of the world.
So, we have in the Upanishad too, the idea that Brahman/Sat is the Atma of the world (idam, kshetram) and the jiva (aham, kshetrajna).
The idea contained in the above two sources, the verse of the Vishnu Sahasra Nama and the Chandogya Mahavakya, is encapsulated beautifully in these words of Yama addressed to his deputies in the Vishnu Puranam:
 सकलमिदमहं च वासुदेवः परमपुमान्परमेश्वरः स एकः । इति मतिर(च)मला भवत्यनन्ते हृदयगते व्रज तान्विहाय दूरात्  || 3.7.32
[All this, and I, are verily Vasudeva who is the Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Lord, who is One. Whoever has such an unshakable conviction with regard to the Infinite Brahman, O Deputies, leave him alone. He is not someone who is fit to die and be born again.]
Shankara has cited this verse in the VSN bhashyam. .
Thus, this Vasudeva is not a deity, devataa, but a Tattva, the Nirguna Brahman. This Tattvam alone appears as the jiva, jagat and the bhoga that occurs as an interaction between the jiva and the jagat. All the instruments at the disposal of the jiva in securing this bhoga (and apavarga, moksha, sadhana), is also kshetram and therefore Vasudeva. The pramaatru, jiva, the observer, is also Vasudeva. Thus, the drshya and drk/drashTaa are verily one Tattvam. Vedanta Jnana is none other than realizing ‘I am Vasudeva’. The equivalent of this is ‘ShivaH kevalo’ham’ as stated by Shankara in the refrain for the Dashashloki which has been elaborately commented upon by Madhusudana Saraswati who also at the beginning of the Siddhanta Bindu acknowledges this as a work of Shankara.
Thus the Advaita Vasudeva Tattva is stated by Veda Vyasa in the Mahabharata (cited above), the Vishnu Puranam on the basis of the Chandogya Upanishad.
Om Tat Sat

In this selection from a chapter of the Prapanchasara, a Shiva stuti’ is included. In one of the verses Shankara alludes to the episode of the Kaalikapurana that details Shiva taking the Sharabha form to contain a Varaha form of Vishnu under certain compulsions. The article is available here for download:

Om Tat Sat

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