Shankara and Madhusudana Saraswati on ‘Bhakti’ in the Bhagavadgita

A sample of the stance that Shankara and Madhusudana take with respect to ‘Bhakti’ in the BG:

BG 12.20: [This chapter itself is called Bhaktiyoga]:

ये तु धर्म्यामृतमिदं यथोक्तं पर्युपासते।
श्रद्दधाना मत्परमा भक्तास्तेऽतीव मे प्रियाः।।12.20।।

Shankara:   मद्भक्ताः च उत्तमां परमार्थज्ञानलक्षणां भक्तिमाश्रिताः ते अतीव मे प्रियाः।

Madhusudana ते मत्परमा भक्ता मां निरुपाधिकं ब्रह्म भजमानास्तेऽतीव मे प्रियाः।प्रियो हि ज्ञानिनोऽत्यर्थमहं स च मम प्रियः इति पूर्वसूचितस्यायमुपसंहारः।

Both Shankara and MS agree that the ‘Bhakta’ of this verse refers to the Advaita Jnani. His Bhakti is Jnaana lakshanaa bhakti.

BG 18.54:

ब्रह्मभूतः प्रसन्नात्मा न शोचति न काङ्क्षति।
समः सर्वेषु भूतेषु मद्भक्तिं लभते पराम्।।18.54।।

S:
मद्भक्तिं मयि परमेश्वरे भक्तिं भजनं पराम् उत्तमां ज्ञानलक्षणां चतुर्थीं लभते चतुर्विधा भजन्ते माम् (गीता 7।16) इति हि उक्तम्।

MS:
एवंभूतो ज्ञाननिष्ठो यतिर्मद्भक्तिं मयि भगवति शुद्धे परमात्मनि भक्तिमुपासनां मदाकारचित्तवृत्त्यावृत्तिरूपां परिपाकनिदिध्यासनाख्यां श्रवणमननाभ्यासफलभूतां लभते परां श्रेष्ठामव्यवधानेन साक्षात्कारफलां चतुर्विधा भजन्ते मामित्यत्रोक्तस्य भक्तिचतुष्टयस्यान्त्यां ज्ञानलक्षणमिति वा।

In the verse too both the commentators hold the same view of bhakti:
Jnaana lakshanaa bhakti.
 

BG 18.55:

S: अतः ज्ञाननिष्ठालक्षणतया भक्त्या माम् अभिजानातीति

MS: भक्त्या निदिध्यासनात्मिकया ज्ञाननिष्ठया मामद्वितीयमात्मानमभिजानाति साक्षात्करोति।

Here, the verse itself says:
भक्त्या मामभिजानाति यावान्यश्चास्मि तत्त्वतः।
ततो मां तत्त्वतो ज्ञात्वा विशते तदनन्तरम्।।18.55।।

Through ‘Bhakti’ one realizes Brahman completely, actually. Both the commentators hold the same view: the bhakti that results in the Brahman-realization is Jnānaniṣṭhā lakṣaṇā.

In all these places the Supreme Bhakti is spoken of in the BG. For Shankara and Madhusudana such a bhakti is non-different from Parājnāna lakshaṇā/niṣṭhā. One can recall the famous verse of the Vivekachudamani:

मोक्षसाधनसामग्र्यां भक्तिरेव गरीयसी ।
स्वस्वरूपानुसंधानं भक्तिरित्य भिधीयते ।।

Among the means to Moksha, Bhakti is the supreme. Contemplation of one’s true Self is admitted to be ‘Bhakti’. This is actually the sādhya bhakti.

Even with reference to sādhana bhakti involving one-pointed supreme devotion specific deities Shankara and Madhusudana do not differ.

Madhusudana writes this verse in BG commentary at the end of a chapter:

शैवाः सौराश्च गाणेशा वैष्णवाः शक्तिपूजकाः। भवन्ति यन्मयाः सर्वे सोहमस्मि परः शिवः।।3।
‘I am that Supreme Śiva which is what the Śaivas, Sauras, Gāṇeśas, Vaiśṇavas, Śāktas meditate upon.’

Shankara, in his Prapanchasāra has specified various deities such as Shiva/Dakshinamurty, Surya, Agni, Vinayaka, Saraswati, Vishnu, etc. as means to attain moksha.

http://www.mediafire.com/view/hohmqulb63qkqel/The_Papanchasara_of_Shankaracharya_-_A_brief_introduction._AB.pdf
The ‘Prapancha Sāra’ of Shankaracharya is a vast book with 33 Chapters.  The thrust of the teaching of the work is: All deities, pitrus, grahas, etc.’ when worshiped appropriately with devotion can confer all that is desired and even moksha.’

Thus, there is absolutely no truth in the erroneous idea that ‘Madhusudana Saraswati differed from Shankara and proposed a distinct bhakti marga’.
Om Tat Sat
Posted by: adbhutam | July 11, 2017

AN INTERESTING OBSERVATION BY A VISHISHTADVAITIN

 

 

An interesting observation by a Viśiṣṭādvaitin

Read post here:

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/advaitin/conversations/messages/69230

 

Om Tat Sat

Posted by: adbhutam | July 8, 2017

VEDA VYASA ASHTOTTARA

Tomorrow is Vyasa Purnima. Puja to Bhagavan Veda Vyasa is performed in many institutions. We can also perform the puja in a way suited to us. Here is the 108 names one can use for this puja:  http://stotram.co.in/veda-vyasa-ashtottara-shatanamavali-2/      It is available in many scripts. Share this with your friends and other groups.

Om.

Posted by: adbhutam | July 6, 2017

TRIMURTI-S ARE PRODUCTS

A snippet from the Nrsimha Tapini Upanishat

The Nrsimha Uttara Tapini Upanishat teaches that the Trimurtis are products of Brahman through the agency of Maya. Here is a short article on this mantra with Shankaracharya’s commentary, bringing out the essentially Advaitic teaching of the Upanishat:

http://www.mediafire.com/file/oi89ij2unn0nq7o/Trimurtis_are_products_F.pdf

Om Tat Sat

 

 

 

Shankara Bhagavatpada acknowledges his authorship of the Prapanchasara

A short article on the above topic is available here:
Om Tat Sat
Posted by: adbhutam | June 17, 2017

SAUPTIKA PARVA – KRISHNA IS SHIVA’S DEAREST DEVOTEE

Sauptika parva:   Krishna is Shiva’s dearest devotee

The Sauptika parva of the Mahabharata is of special importance in that  it has the endorsement of ‘Krishna’s prayer to Shiva’ by both Krishna and Shiva. The occasion is Ashwatthama’s seeking divine astra-s from Krishna and Shiva on different instances. Upon hearing the prayer of Ashwatthama, Shiva addresses him:

10007059a तमूर्ध्वबाहुं निश्चेष्टं दृष्ट्वा हविरुपस्थितम्
10007059c अब्रवीद्भगवान्साक्षान्महादेवो हसन्निव
10007060a सत्यशौचार्जवत्यागैस्तपसा नियमेन च
10007060c क्षान्त्या भक्त्या च धृत्या च बुद्ध्या च वचसा तथा
10007061a यथावदहमाराद्धः कृष्णेनाक्लिष्टकर्मणा
10007061c तस्मादिष्टतमः कृष्णादन्यो मम न विद्यते
10007062a कुर्वता तस्य संमानं त्वां च जिज्ञासता मया
 
//Beholding him (Ashwatthama) stand immovable and with uplifted hands and as an offering up to himself, the divine Mahadeva appeared in person and smilingly said, "With truth, purity, sincerity, resignation, ascetic austerities, vows, forgiveness, devotion, patience, thought, and word, I have been duly adored by Krishna of pure deeds. For this there is none dearer to me than Krishna. For honoring him and at his word I have protected the Panchala-s and displayed diverse kinds of illusion. By protecting the Panchala-s I have honored him. They have, however, been afflicted by time. The period of their lives hath run out."//

Here is what Krishna tells Ashwatthama:
10012026c द्वंद्वयुद्धे पराजिष्णुस्तोषयामास शंकरम्
10012027a यस्मात्प्रियतरो नास्ति ममान्यः पुरुषो भुवि
10012027c नादेयं यस्य मे किंचिदपि दाराः सुतास्तथा
10012028a तेनापि सुहृदा ब्रह्मन्पार्थेनाक्लिष्टकर्मणा
10012028c नोक्तपूर्वमिदं वाक्यं यत्त्वं मामभिभाषसे
10012029a ब्रह्मचर्यं महद्घोरं चीर्त्वा द्वादशवार्षिकम्
10012029c हिमवत्पार्श्वमभ्येत्य यो मया तपसार्चितः
10012030a समानव्रतचारिण्यां रुक्मिण्यां योऽन्वजायत
10012030c सनत्कुमारस्तेजस्वी प्रद्युम्नो नाम मे सुतः
10012031a तेनाप्येतन्महद्दिव्यं चक्रमप्रतिमं मम
10012031c न प्रार्थितमभून्मूढ यदिदं प्रार्थितं त्वया
http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m10/m10012.htm
////When he withdrew his heart from that purpose, I addressed the anxious and senseless Ashvatthama and said, "He who is always regarded as the foremost of all human beings, that wielder of gandiva, that warrior having white steeds yoked unto his car, that hero owning the prince of apes for the device on his standard, that hero who, desirous of vanquishing in a wrestling encounter the god of gods, the blue-throated lord of Uma, gratified the great Shankara himself, that Phalguna than whom I have no dearer friend on earth, that friend to whom there is nothing that I cannot give including my very wives and children, that dear friend Partha of unstained acts, never said unto me, O brahmana, such words as these which thou hast uttered.//
After referring to Arjuna's prayer to Shiva for the Pāśupatāstra, Krishna now refers to his own tapas directed at Shiva:

//That son whom I obtained through ascetic penances and observances of austere brahmacarya for twelve years on the breast of Himavati whither I had gone for the purpose, that son of mine, Pradyumna, of great energy and a portion of Sanat-kumara himself, begotten by me upon my wife Rukmini who had practised vows as austere as mine, that hero even never solicited this best of objects, this unrivaled discus, which thou of little understanding had solicited!//

Krishna openly speaks of his visit to Kailasa and the purpose thereof.

Another special feature of this Parva is the description of the Kailāsa vibhūti that Ashwatthāma got to see for himself. One such is this:

10007044a श्रुतेन ब्रह्मचर्येण तपसा च दमेन च

10007044c ये समाराध्य शूलाङ्कं भवसायुज्यमागताः

//Having adored the trident-bearing god with Vedic recitations, with brahmacarya, with austerities, and with self-restraint, they have obtained oneness with Bhava.//

This is in keeping with the Brhadaranyaka 4.4.22 passage:

तमेतं वेदानुवचनेन ब्राह्मणा विविदिषन्ति यज्ञेन दानेन तपसानाशकेन [That Upanishadic Brahman is intended to be realized by the brāhmaṇa-s by resorting to Vedic recitations, practicing vedic sacrifices, giving gifts, austerities such as fasting….]

We are also reminded of the words of Krishna:

http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/mbhK/unic/mbhK14_sa.html

https://adbhutam.wordpress.com/2017/04/24/worship-of-shiva-or-vishnu-lead-to-the-same-result-mahabharata/

14_004_1454 निवेशयति मन्मूर्त्या आत्मानं मद्गतः शुचिः

14_004_1455 रुद्रदक्षिणमूर्त्यां वा चतुर्दश्यां विशेषतः

14_004_1456 सिद्धैर्ब्रह्मर्षिभिश्चैव देवलोकैश्च पूजितः

14_004_1457 गन्धर्वैर्भूतसंघैश्च गीयमानो महातपाः

14_004_1458 प्रविशेत्स महातेजा मां वा शंकरमेव वा

14_004_1459 तस्यापुनर्भवं (sic) राजन्नात्र कार्या विचारणा

Whoever on the Chaturdashī, gives himself up in devotion to My (Vishnu’s) form or to the form of Rudra-Dakshināmūrti, will be worshiped by the siddha-s, brahmaṛṣi-s and the devaloka-s and praised by the gandharva-s and the bhūta-groups, he, such a devotee is Mahātapāḥ. Such a devotee endowed with great Tejas will be united with Me or Shankara; he will be freed from rebirth. No doubt need to be had in this, O Yudhishtira!

Repeatedly one can encounter such statements in the Mahabharata that bring out the central theme of not only the MB but the entire Veda:

रुद्रो नारायणश्चैव सत्त्वमेकं द्विधा कृतम्।

लोके चरति कौन्तेय व्यक्तिस्थं सर्वकर्मसु।। 12-350-27a 12-350-27b.

[Rudra and Narayana are only two manifestations of One Principle…….]

And it is Sridhara Swamin who has captured the purport of both the Veda and Veda Vyasa, just as Shankara did variously:

in his invocation to the commentary to the Bhāgavatam says:

माधवोमाधवावीशौ सर्वसिद्धिविधायिनौ। वन्दे परस्परात्मानौ परस्परनुतिप्रियौ॥

I bow to Mādhava and Umādhava (Shiva) who are both ‘Isha-s’ Supreme Lords. They are capable of bestowing all accomplishments (to their devotees). They are both the selves of each other and both love to engage in the stuti of each other.

Om Tat Sat

Posted by: adbhutam | June 13, 2017

A ‘MURDER’ OF SATI-SAPTAMI

A ‘murder’ of sati-saptamī

In Sanskrit grammar there is the usage of ‘sati saptamī’ in order to convey a fulfillment of a condition and an effect that ensues. There is a paurvāparya bhāva between the two events. A very popular example is this verse from the Matsya purāṇa:

प्रीयतां पुण्डरीकाक्षः सर्वयज्ञेश्वरो हरिः| तस्मिंस्तुष्टे जगत्तुष्टं प्रीणिते प्रीणितं भवेत् || ३८. [ ‘जगत्’ is an alternative reading]

Let Hari, the lotus-eyed, the Lord of all sacrifices, be pleased. If he is happy the entire world is happy; if He is pleased, the world becomes pleased. In this verse the ‘sati-saptamī’ is seen in the second half.

Here the locative case ‘tasmin’ to indicate Hari is connected to the other locative word ‘tuśṭe’ as ‘if Hari is happy…’ (then) the world is happy, Another locative case here is ‘prīṇite’, is pleased, the world is pleased.

Thus, the locative case is not to indicate any literal adhikaraṇa, location. It is simply called sati saptami. The explanation is: तस्मिन् हरौ तुष्टे सति जगत् तुष्टं भवेत् , तस्मिन् हरौ प्रीणिते सति जगदपि प्रीणितं स्यात् ।

However, here is an example of a pathetic distortion of this sati-saptamī:

http://narayanastra.blogspot.in/p/prayers-of-sri-krishna-to-shiva.html

 

// tasmin hi pUjyamAne vai devadeve maheshvare sampUjito bhavetpArtha devo nArAyaNaH prabhuH

It is nArAyaNa, who is well-known as Deva (Possessor of auspicious attributes worthy of worship), PrabhuH (Master of all and hence the only one fit to worship) IN Maheshwara, the Lord of the Devas (pArvati pati rudradeva, who is mahEshwara and devadeva only due to nArAyaNa’s grace), who is worshipped.//

The verse is from the Mahabharata:

http://bombay.indology.info/mahabharata/text/UD/MBh12.txt
12328020a तस्मिन् हि पूज्यमाने वै देवदेवे महेश्वरे
12328020c संपूजितो भवेत्पार्थ देवो नारायणः प्रभुः
This verse says that when Shiva is worshiped, Narayana stands eminently worshiped. The anvaya is: तस्मिन् देवदेवे महेश्वरे हि पूज्यमाने, हे पार्थ, देवो नारायणः प्रभुः संपूजितो भवेत् । However, in their bigoted enthusiasm to deny Krishna worshiping Shiva in real terms, the bloggers have completely distorted the verse out of ignorance or design or both and the above is their end product !!
The verses that occur there in the MB are also very clear of Krishna’s intent.12328023c यस्तं वेत्ति स मां वेत्ति योऽनु तं स हि मामनु 12328024a रुद्रो नारायणश्चैव सत्त्वमेकं द्विधा कृतम् 12328024c लोके चरति कौन्तेय व्यक्तिस्थं सर्वकर्मसु
He who realizes Shiva realizes Me and he who follows/worships Shiva follows/worships Me. Rudra and Narayana are One Principle appearing as two.Shankara alone brings out the true purport of the Shruti-Smriti-Veda Vyasa:References from the Vishnu sahasra nama bhashya are given to substantiate the above:For the name ‘stavyaḥ’ Shankara says: सर्वैः स्तूयते न स्तोता कस्यचित् इति । [He (Brahman) is the object of stuti for all but never does the stuti of anyone else.] It would appear to those who have no idea of Shankara as a Vedantin that the above commentary is addressed to Vishnu a deity. However Shankara has also said in the VSN itself:For the name ‘shiva’ Shankara says निस्त्रैगुण्यतया शुद्धत्वात् शिवः and cites the Kaivalyopanishat: ‘स ब्रह्मा स शिवः’ इत्यभेदोपदेशात् शिवादिनामभिः हरिरेव स्तूयते । [‘He is Brahma, He is Shiva’ – thus by the teaching of non-difference, by the names such as shiva, Hari alone is praised.] Who is Hari? For that name at 650 Shankara says: सहेतुकं संसारं हरतीति हरिः [He who annihilates samsāra along with its cause (avidya)] Such a one is Nirguna Brahma jnanam according to Vedanta and not any individual deity. Shankara has cited a verse at the beginning of the VSN commentary:

स्वमायया स्वमात्मानं मोहयन्द्वैतमायया ।

गुणाहितं स्वमात्मानं लभते च स्वयं हरिः ॥

Deluding himself by the māyā of dvaita, Hari, also renders himself endowed with (samsara) guṇa-s. ‘āhitam’ in the second line also means ‘freed of’. So, by himself he becomes freed from guṇas.

This is reminiscent of Madhusudana Saraswati’s invocation for the Advaita siddhi.

This entity in Advaita is Nirguna Brahman, which alone, owing to avidyā, assumes jīvabhāva, and resorting to Vedanta vichara frees itself from samsara: Br.Up.1.4.10.

Shankara further cites in the VSN bhāṣya a few verses from the Harivamṣa 3.88. 61, 61, 62 which are addressed by Maheśwara during the Kailāsa yātra episode:

नामानि तव गोविन्द यानि लोके महान्ति च ।

तान्येव मम नामानि नात्र कार्या विचारणा ॥

[O Govinda, your esteemed names alone are mine as well; no doubt need to be had in this regard] There Veda Vyasa, through Shiva, conveys that all the names of Viṣṇu, including the name ‘Nārāyaṇa’ are that of Śiva.  Thus the thousand names of Viṣṇu are also those of Śiva since there is no difference in name and sense between the pair Hari and Hara.

त्वदुपासा जगन्नाथ सैवास्तु मम गोपते ।

यश्च त्वां द्वेष्टि भो देव स मां द्वेष्टि न संशयः ॥

[The worship/meditation of You, O Gopati, let that be meditation on me too.  He who hates you O Deva, hates me too, undoubtedly.]

Harivamśa verses, spoken by Maheśvara (Śiva) to Vishnu:

अहं त्वं सर्वग देव त्वमेवाहं जनार्दन ।

आवयोरन्तरं नास्ति शब्दैरर्थैर्जगत्त्रये ॥ (3.88.60)

[O, the all-pervading one, I am Thee, and Thou are me alone. There is no difference between the two of us either by word or meaning in all the three worlds.]

This particular verse is exactly to the point:

Shankara cites two seminal verses from the Bhaviṣyottara purāṇa in the introduction to the VS:

Maheśvara (Śiva) says:

विष्णोरन्यं तु पश्यन्ति ये मां ब्रह्माणमेव वा ।

कुतर्कमतयो मूढाः पच्यन्ते नरकेष्वधः ॥

[Those fools who, devoid of proper thinking, consider Me and Brahmā as different from Viṣṇu will be baked in the lowly hells.]

ये च मूढा दुरात्मानो भिन्नं पश्यन्ति मां हरेः ।

ब्रह्माणं च ततस्तस्माद् ब्रह्महत्यासमं त्वघम् ॥

[Those fools, wicked ones, by seeing Me and Brahmā as different from Hari are committing the heinous sin of brahmahatyā.]

One can recall a similar verse in the Śrīmadbhāgavatam (Dakṣayajña section) as said by Viṣṇu.

From the several verses Shankara cites from the Harivamśa by even naming the chapter as ‘Kailāsa Yatra’, it is evident that he knows why that chapter is there both in the Mahabharata and Harivamśa: Upon Rukmini seeking a child from Krishna, the latter decided to undertake a pilgrimage to Kailasa with a view to perform devout penance and seek the boon of progeny from Shiva.  It is in this episode that the Shiva Sahasra nama occurs in the MB. The Harivamśa contains Krishna’s stuti to Shiva and the latter’s stuti to Krishna, only reaffirming Veda Vyasa’s conclusion:

12328024a रुद्रो नारायणश्चैव सत्त्वमेकं द्विधा कृतम्

12328024c लोके चरति कौन्तेय व्यक्तिस्थं सर्वकर्मसु

Rudra and Narayana are One Principle appearing as two.

However, bigoted vaishnavas labor hard to hide these facts from their gullible readers and proffer pathetic interpretations to these verses. They have the temerity to fault Nilakantha, the commentator, not realizing how faulty they themselves are on so many counts:

//The HarivamSham contains prayers of Krishna to, supposedly pArvati pati rudradeva – who appeared in front of him with his consort Uma and the gaNas – for a boon of victory. This is an explanation of the Stuti. Since nIlakaNtha bhAshyam on this section is very shallow and even erroneous at times, it required a detailed explanation.//

One can see how they have distorted the episode and the content by resorting to text-torturing, mutilation, etc. Here is the correct depiction:

http://mahabharata-resources.org/harivamsa/vishnuparva/hv_2_074.html

Shankara is never in such a predicament.  His philosophy is not dependent on any individual deity.  The Vedantic Brahman for Shankara is not any deity.  All vaibhava of any deity whether Vishnu or Shiva is accruing from māyā/avidyā since Brahman is Nirgunam. All vaibhava is relevant only with reference to the world and not anymore. Hence all these attributes are applied to Brahman, whether It is called Vishnu or Shiva, from the triguṇātmikā māyā. Says Shankara in the BSB 2.1.14:  अविद्यात्मकनामरूपबीजव्याकरणापेक्षत्वात्सर्वज्ञत्वस्य । [Omniscience (of Brahman) ensues from the manifestation of the seed of ignorance, name-form, as the world.]

तदेवमविद्यात्मकोपाधिपरिच्छेदापेक्षमेवेश्वरस्येश्वरत्वं सर्वज्ञत्वं सर्वशक्तित्वं च, न परमार्थतो विद्यया

अपास्तसर्वोपाधिस्वरूपे आत्मनि ईशित्रीशितव्यसर्वज्ञत्वादिव्यवहार उपपद्यते .. [Omnipotence, etc. too are relative to avidya. When avidya is transcended by vidya, the duality of controller-controlled ceases to be.]

Thus, wherever Vishnu or Shiva ‘grace’ each other or others with any vaibhava, it is to be understood that Vishnu/Shiva himself is ‘graced’ with all vaibhava in turn by Māyā.

Blatant lies:

http://narayanastra.blogspot.in/p/prayers-of-sri-krishna-to-shiva.html

//The harivamSham mentions that Krishna did not allow anyone into Dwaraka unless they had a mudra. This “mudra” is nothing but shanka-chakra marks on the shoulders as per pAcharAtra sAstras, so we know Krishna was following pAncharAtra agama in this avatArA.//

The truth:

In the Harivamsha, bhaviṣyaparva section, 74th chapter, occur these verses spoken by Krishna on the eve of his departure to Kailāsa. Krishna gives instructions as to how the city of Dvaraka has to be protected:

एक एव महाद्वारो गमनागमने सदा । मुद्रया सह गच्छन्तु राज्ञो ये गन्तुमीप्सवः ॥ २४ ॥

[Only one Main Gate will be there always for entry and exit. Those who wish to exit shall go with the Royal ‘mudrā’ (Gate Pass).]

न चामुद्रः प्रवेष्टव्यो द्वारपालस्य पश्यतः । यावदागमनं मह्यं तावदेवं भविष्यति ॥ २५ ॥

[No one without the Gate Pass should be allowed (to enter, return) by the vigilant Gate keeper. Till I return (from Kailāsa) this arrangement shall be in place.]

मृगया नात्र कर्तव्या न च क्रीडा बहिः पुरात् । ज्ञातव्याश्च परे स्वे च गमनागमने सदा ॥ २६ ॥

[Hunting and sporting outside the city shall be banned for the time being. A watch shall be kept on the entry and exit of natives and others.]

एवमादिक्रिया कार्या यावदागमनं मम । इत्युक्त्वा याद्वान् सर्वान् सात्यकिं पुनराह च ॥ २७ ॥

[All such instructions have to be followed till I return. Having said thus to the Yādava-s, Krishna addressed Sātyaki further.]

In the next chapter some more instructions are given by Krishna. In the above chapter, before the above instructions, Krishna very clearly says:

अहं तु यासे कैलासं कुतश्चित्कारनान् नृपाः ।  १९ ॥

[I am setting off to Kailasa on some purpose, O Kings.]

शंकरं द्रष्टुकामोस्मि भूतभावनभावनम् । यावदागमनं मह्यं तावद्यत्ता भवन्त्विह ॥ २० ॥

[I intend to see Shankara who is the creator and protector of the universe. Till my return you all have to be vigilant here.]

The context is: there is a threat from an asura named Paundraka and Krishna is not taking him for granted. Krishna lists the enemy’s exceptional powers and hence makes very careful arrangements to preempt any misadventure by the enemy. Hence are the entry-exit with a royal pass, etc. relevant. Imagine Krishna subjecting his citizens to the ordeal of a branding exercise !!  Krishna also makes it clear that the gate-pass system is a temporary measure, to be implemented during his absence from Dvaraka.

Thus, there is no such thing as ‘tapta mudra’ with ‘shankha, chakra, etc.’ as wishfully thought of by the blogger. Nor is there even a remote indication of any ‘pāncharātra’ following by Krishna here !! There is no limit to one’s bigotry !!

God alone save their gullible fan-following. As to how much one relies on their words can be gauged by this sample:

//AnonymousJuly 17, 2014 at 10:32 AM

Dear sir, I think you had misunderstood me. I am a vaisnava and I was just requesting for the purana verse for people who may not agree with what you had said, since I had come upon a person who didn’t believe me. Trust me, I use your articles as proof for family members who are not vaisnava. I did not intent to display you as untrustworthy. I apologize if I may have angered you, and I will not post anymore to avoid any conflict. Thank you for replying to my question. Hare krishna.//

Such is the trust their followers invest in them only to be handed all lies. ‘अन्धेनैव नीयमाना यथा अन्धाः’ .

Conclusion:

All these go to establish that the concept of Hari-Hara abheda is well enshrined in the Shruti, Smṛti, itihāsa and purāṇa.  And the Acharyas of the Shankara lineage, right from the times of Shankara and Sureshwara, have been upholding this Hari-Hara abheda and Trimurti aikya theme, up to the present times. Sureshwara too, in the Br.up. Vārtika brought out the trimurti aikya theme while commenting on the antaryāmi section holding that anyone of the Trimurtis can be designated the Vedantic antaryāmin for upasana.

Om Tat Sat

Posted by: adbhutam | June 6, 2017

‘FIE UPON THE FOREHEAD DEVOID OF BHASMA’

‘Fie upon the forehead that is devoid of Bhasma’

An article on the above topic is available here for download:

Om Tat Sat
Posted by: adbhutam | May 30, 2017

ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE WORLD IN THE 3 SCHOOLS OF VEDANTA

Attitude towards the world in the Three Schools of Vedanta

It is well known that while Advaita holds the world to be mithyā, the other two schools hold it to be satyam. It might follow from this that while the attitude of advaitins towards the world is something like ‘do not care about the world, shun it, anyway it is mithya, do not engage with it’, the view of the followers of the other schools would be ‘the world is real and we should engage with it to the hilt in multiple ways.’ That such a thinking is not borne out by the facts is what is presented here by citing a sample from the books of the three schools:

The Bhagavadgita 15.3 is taken up to illustrate the point:
 रूपमस्येह तथोपलभ्यते नान्तो  चादिर्न  सम्प्रतिष्ठा । अश्वत्थमेनं सुविरूढमूलमसङ्गशस्त्रेण दृढेन छित्त्वा ॥ ३ ॥
The translation of the verses 15.3 and 4 would put the topic in right perspective:
15.3 The real form of this tree cannot be perceived in this world. No one can understand where it ends, where it begins, or where its foundation is. But with determination one must cut down this strongly rooted tree with the weapon of detachment. 15.4: Thereafter, one must seek that place from which, having gone, one never returns, and for this, surrender to that Supreme Personality of Godhead from whom everything began and from whom everything has extended since time immemorial.
Shankara says in the BGB 15.3:
15.3 But, asya, its-of this Tree of the World which has been described; rupam, form, as it has been presented; na, is not at all; upalabhyate, perceived; iha, here; tatha, in that way. For, being like a dream, water in a mirage, jugglery, an imaginary city seen in the sky, it is by nature destroyed no sooner than it is seen. Therefore, na, there exists neither; its antah, end, limit, termination; so also, neither; its beginning. It is not comprehended by anyone that it comes into existence beginning from any definite point. Its sampratistha, continuance, the middle state, too, is not perceived by anyone. Chittva, after felling, uprooting, together with its seeds; enam, this, above described; asvattham, Peepul, the Tree of the World; suvirudha-mulam, whose roots (mula) are well (su) developed (virudham); drdhena, with the strong-hardened by a resolute mind directed towards the supreme Self, and sharpened on the stone of repeated practice of discrimination; asanga-sastrena, sword of detachment-detachment means turning away from the desire for progeny, wealth and the worlds; with that sword of detachment.
Humankind is at the pinnacle, our actions form the branches extending above and below as also its secondary roots — this form of the tree is not understood by those immersed in Samsāra. Similarly, it is not understood that the end [of Samsāra] can be brought about by non-attachment to pleasures which are founded upon the Gunas. It is also not perceived that attachment to the Gunas alone is the foundation of this tree. Nor is it realised that this tree is nourished by ignorance (ajñanam) which is the misconception that the body is the Self. Ignorance alone is the basis of this tree, since in it alone the tree is established. This Aśvattha Tree is firmly-rooted — its roots are firm and manifold, and it is to be cut down with the strong axe of non-attachment, — namely the axe, forged by right knowledge of non-attachment to the enjoyable sense objects composed of the three Gunas.
Madhva on the same verse: translation from:

This ancient asvattha or banyan tree represents material existence but it is not perceivable yet it is seen to have been established. The word adi means beginning and anta means the end which refer to the Supreme Lord. The Bhagavad Purana states: The Supreme Lord is the beginning, the end and the middle as well. The Moksa Dharma states: The Supreme Lord has neither beginning nor ending, more the demigods and seers cannot penetrate. The compound word asanga-sastrena means the wisdom of non-attachment arising from association with Vaisnava devotees of the Supreme Lord. With the sword of detachment sharpened by meditation on the wisdom of renunciation. By this method the world does not become a place of bondage. By knowledge of the Vedic scriptures and practice the knowledge of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence will be revealed to one. It is confirmed in the Vedic scriptures that: Meditation verily is the way and the means for discrnment and detachment. Such a one will not be bound although others will. The purport is that with the weapon of detachment one should sever ties with everything except the Supreme Lord Krishna and His authorised avatars or divine incarnations and expansions. The Moksa Dharma states: When on surrenders unto the Supreme Lord one does not suffer or grieve. Neither is one born, nor does one die. Such a one is verily situated in the brahman. Only one who has been graced by the blessing of the Supreme Lord can be elligible to become qualified to attain this. The describibng of the means of severing attachment have been given for the sake of an aspirant receiving the Supreme Lord grace. No other shelter or refuge exists in all creation other than the Supeme Lord Krishna and this fundamental understanding must be realised. Since this material existence is like a horse with an unstable gait it is known as unsteady. That it is immutable is because samsara or the perpetual cycle of birth and death is like a stream and endless until one achieves moksa or liberation from material existence. This liberation is determined by detachment. The firm conviction that the Supreme Lord is transcendental to everything in the physical existence is the knowledge gained from the destruction of this ancient banyan tree.

One can see that all the three schools emphasize on the need to turn away from the world, that is worldly attachments, and keep the goal of reaching one’s true abode, mokṣa, unswerving. An ideal vedantin would therefore realize at the earliest opportunity in life that one aught not to be overly indulging in the world but on the contrary reduce his engagement with it as far as possible and keep it to the minimum of sustaining his body and sadhana. His attitude therefore is, to put in Purandara Dasa’s words: allide nammane, illiruvudu summane: My true abode is That, There, moksha; while what is here, this world, is insubstantial.  It would be beneficial to see what Prahlada has to say on this (Srimadbhāgavatam :
śrī-prahrāda uvāca
kaumāra ācaret prājño  dharmān bhāgavatān iha
durlabhaṁ mānuṣaṁ janma
 tad apy adhruvam arthadam  
Prahlāda said: One who is sufficiently intelligent should use the human form of body from the very beginning of life — in other words, from the tender age of childhood — to practice the activities of devotional service, giving up all other engagements. The human body is most rarely achieved, and although temporary like other bodies, it is meaningful because in human life one can perform devotional service. Even a slight amount of sincere devotional service can give one complete perfection. 

 yathā hi puruṣasyeha
viṣṇoḥ pādopasarpaṇam
yad eṣa sarva-bhūtānāṁ
priya ātmeśvaraḥ suhṛt
The human form of life affords one a chance to return home, back to Godhead. Therefore every living entity, especially in the human form of life, must engage in devotional service to the lotus feet of Lord Viṣṇu. This devotional service is natural because Lord Viṣṇu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the most beloved, the master of the soul, and the well-wisher of all other living beings.
From this sample we can see that the scripture too, apart from strong Vedic utterances like ‘na karmaṇā, na prajayā danena, tyāgenaike amṛtatvamānaśuḥ’ (neither by action nor by progeny or wealth, only by renouncing these, some have attained immortality), ‘yatheha karmachito lokaḥ kṣīyate, evamevāmutra puṇyachito lokaḥ kṣīyate’ (just as anything achieved in this world through action wastes away, so too that which is gained by merit, in the other world too diminishes.’ there is the clarion call to give up one’s engagement with the world at the earliest and strive for realizing one’s true abode of liberation.
If anyone is intent upon probing the world to discover its secrets, it is only driven by his personal curiosity and not dictated by his vedantic affiliation to this or that school. Thus, someone practicing Advaita sadhana can very well engage in such research activity just as someone who follows non-advaitic schools: the common motivating factor is one’s quest to know the hidden secrets of the universe. Or at best inventing those facilities that would help mankind lead a more comfortable life, give him relief from disease, etc. All this might fall in the category of ‘Ishvara seva through mānava seva’ and help in chittashuddhi. All three know very well that the goal of their life is detachment from the world resulting in liberation.
An excerpt from a dialogue from ‘Exalting Elucidations’, chapter: Śāstra and Science’ p.287 (Sri Vidyatirtha Foundation, Chennai):
Sringeri Jagadguru Sri Abhinava Vidyatirtha Swamiji:  //Of course there are many advantages that we get from science.There is no doubt at all about it. But it is not necessary to accept what some scientists conclude through imagination and faulty logic. At any rate, there is absolutely no rule that just because one is a scientist, one should be an atheist. Many great scientists were theists and even now there are many scientists who believe in God. Thus, dedication to science does not necessitate the denial of consciousness other than matter.//
Om Tat Sat
Posted by: adbhutam | May 29, 2017

‘DAHARA VIDYA PRAKAŚA’

‘Dahara vidyā prakāśa’

Sri Paramashivendra Saraswati (1600 – 1700), Guru of Sri Sadashiva brahmendra, composed this work: ‘Dahara vidya prakasha’. Download at:

A short work based on the Upanishadic Dahara vidya. He cites the Shānkara bhāṣya and adds a number of Puranic verses. He has also cited from the Soundarya lahari, upadeśa panchakam and other works of Shankara.
Om Tat Sat

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