Posted by: adbhutam | September 26, 2018

11 CE commentator of Charaka Samhita mentions Jivanmukti and prays to Turiya Shiva

11 CE commentator of Charaka Samhita mentions Jivanmukti and prays to Turiya Shiva

Chakrapani, a 11 CE commentator for the Charaka samhita (Ayurveda), admits jivanmukti while describing moksha in the Charaka samhita.

//The most celebrated commentary on this text is the Carakatātparyaṭīkā “Commentary on the Meaning of the Caraka” or the Ayurveda Dīpikā, “The Lamp to Ayurveda” written by Cakrapāṇidatta (1066).//

While commenting on the charaka samhita mention of moksha, Chakrapani says:

१. कतिधापुरुषीयशारीरम्

1)योगे मोक्षे च सर्वासां वेदनानामवर्तनम्|

मोक्षे निवृत्तिर्निःशेषा योगो मोक्षप्रवर्तकः||१३७||

2)मोक्षो रजस्तमोऽभावात् बलवत्कर्मसङ्क्षयात्|

वियोगः सर्वसंयोगैरपुनर्भव उच्यते||१४२||

3)अयनं पुनराख्यातमेतद्योगस्य योगिभिः|

सङ्ख्यातधर्मैः साङ्ख्यैश्च मुक्तैर्मोक्षस्य चायनम्||१५१||

Chakrapani Opinion-एवं स्मृतिं सामान्येन प्रतिपाद्य तत्त्वस्मृतेर्मोक्षसाधकत्वं दर्शयन्नाह- एतदित्यादि| एकमयनमिति श्रेष्ठः [१०७] पन्थाः| मुक्तैरिति जीवन्मुक्तैरिति ज्ञेयं, सर्वथामुक्तानां शरीराभावेनोपदर्शकत्वाभावात्| तत्त्वस्मृतिबलमिति तत्त्वस्मृतिरूपं बलं; किंवा, तत्त्वस्मृतिर्बलं यत्र मोक्षसाधनमार्गे तत्तत्त्वस्मृतिबलम्| येनेति येन यथा| गता इति मोक्षंगताः न पुनरागता इति मुक्तिं याता न पुनरागच्छन्ति||१५०-१५१||

शारीरस्थानम् – ५. पुरुषविचयशारीरम्

निवृत्तिरपवर्गः; तत् परं प्रशान्तं तत्तदक्षरं तद्ब्रह्म स मोक्षः||११||

[The above quotes were provided by a member Savita Sajjan in the BVP forum in a discussion thread]

Click to access IJAAR_VOLUME_III__ISSUE_V_NOV_DEC_2017___893_900.pdf

// Most of the historians fixed the period of Chakrapanidutta as 11th century AD. //

//Chakrapani Dutta belonged to Dutta family from Eastern part of India in the 11th century AD period. His father Narayana Dutta was the person in charge of King’s kitchen with the status of a minister in the Kingdom of Gauda (Nayapala).//

Chakrapani Datta’s invocation to his commentary to the Charaka Samhita:

गुणत्रयविभेदेन मूर्तित्रयमुपेयुषे ।
त्रयीभुवे त्रिनेत्राय त्रिलोकीपतये नमः ॥१॥

[Obeisance to the Lord of the three worlds, the Three-eyed Lord, the source of the Vedas, who assumes three forms based on the three different guNa-s.]

The reference is to One Brahman taking three forms, of the Trimurti-s, owing to assuming the three gunas – sattva, rajas and tamas. Here, Trinetra, Lord Shiva, is addressed as that Brahman. This is in accordance with the Atharva Shikha, etc. Upanishads. Shiva Puranam is another instance. The Mahabharata too has such verses. The name ‘Tayaanaam janakah’ referring to Shiva as the progenitor of the Tirmurtis, in the Brihajjabala Upanishad is another pramana. Kalidasa too has stated that One entity alone takes the forms of Trimurti-s. Only a Vedantin can compose a prayer as the above. Another beauty in the verse is: the word ‘traya’ (threesome) is used five times with different connotations. Thus we have an ancient Vedantin, of the 11 CE, easily a contemporary of Sarvajnatman, Ramanuja, etc. commenting on the Charaka Samhita (Ayurveda), bringing out, in the passing, the Advaitic tenets in the work. The Turiya Shiva concept too is worthy of attention, from a Vedantin who preceded Vidyaranya and Appayya Dikshita by several centuries!!

As an aside, the charaka samhita of the 2 or 3 BCE saying निवृत्तिरपवर्गः; तत् परं प्रशान्तं तत्तदक्षरं तद्ब्रह्म स मोक्षः||११|| thereby identifying Brahman with Moksha is a sure stamp of Advaita. There are many instances in the Charaka Samhita that are absolutely Vedantic; the fragrance of Advaita being unmistakable.

Om Tat Sat

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