Posted by: adbhutam | June 18, 2018

A ‘shivastuti’ by Sri Goswami Tulasidas

In the Ramacharitamanas we find a beautiful ‘shivastuti’ that has become very popular.  In fact Sri Tulasidas commences his work with a grand invocation of Shiva’s blessings:

http://hindi.webdunia.com/religion/religion/hindu/ramcharitmanas/BalKand/1.htm
प्रथम सोपान-मंगलाचरण
श्लोक :
* वर्णानामर्थसंघानां रसानां छन्दसामपि।
मंगलानां च कर्त्तारौ वन्दे वाणीविनायकौ॥1॥
भावार्थ:-अक्षरों, अर्थ समूहों, रसों, छन्दों और मंगलों को करने वाली सरस्वतीजी और गणेशजी की मैं वंदना करता हूँ॥1॥
* भवानीशंकरौ वन्दे श्रद्धाविश्वासरूपिणौ।
याभ्यां विना न पश्यन्ति सिद्धाः स्वान्तःस्थमीश्वरम्‌॥2॥
भावार्थ:-श्रद्धा और विश्वास के स्वरूप श्री पार्वतीजी और श्री शंकरजी की मैं वंदना करता हूँ, जिनके बिना सिद्धजन अपने अन्तःकरण में स्थित ईश्वर को नहीं देख सकते॥2॥
* वन्दे बोधमयं नित्यं गुरुं शंकररूपिणम्‌।
यमाश्रितो हि वक्रोऽपि चन्द्रः सर्वत्र वन्द्यते॥3॥
भावार्थ:-ज्ञानमय, नित्य, शंकर रूपी गुरु की मैं वन्दना करता हूँ, जिनके आश्रित होने से ही टेढ़ा चन्द्रमा भी सर्वत्र वन्दित होता है॥3॥
* सीतारामगुणग्रामपुण्यारण्यविहारिणौ।
वन्दे विशुद्धविज्ञानौ कवीश्वरकपीश्वरौ॥4॥
भावार्थ:-श्री सीतारामजी के गुणसमूह रूपी पवित्र वन में विहार करने वाले, विशुद्ध विज्ञान सम्पन्न कवीश्वर श्री वाल्मीकिजी और कपीश्वर श्री हनुमानजी की मैं वन्दना करता हूँ॥4॥
* उद्भवस्थितिसंहारकारिणीं क्लेशहारिणीम्‌।
सर्वश्रेयस्करीं सीतां नतोऽहं रामवल्लभाम्‌॥5॥
भावार्थ:-उत्पत्ति, स्थिति (पालन) और संहार करने वाली, क्लेशों को हरने वाली तथा सम्पूर्ण कल्याणों को करने वाली श्री रामचन्द्रजी की प्रियतमा श्री सीताजी को मैं नमस्कार करता हूँ॥5॥
This depiction of the ‘shakti’ (feminine) power is reminiscent of the first verse of Shankaracharya’s Soundarya lahari verse: शिवः शक्त्या युक्तो यदि भवति शक्तः प्रभवितुं न चेदेवं देवो न खलु कुशलः स्पन्दितुमपि । अतस्त्वामाराध्यां हरिहविरिन्च्यादिभिरपि प्रणन्तुं स्तोतुं वा कथमकृतपुण्यः प्रभवति ।।.
* यन्मायावशवर्ति विश्वमखिलं ब्रह्मादिदेवासुरा
यत्सत्त्वादमृषैव भाति सकलं रज्जौ यथाहेर्भ्रमः।
यत्पादप्लवमेकमेव हि भवाम्भोधेस्तितीर्षावतां
वन्देऽहं तमशेषकारणपरं रामाख्यमीशं हरिम्‌॥6॥
भावार्थ:-जिनकी माया के वशीभूत सम्पूर्ण विश्व, ब्रह्मादि देवता और असुर हैं, जिनकी सत्ता से रस्सी में सर्प के भ्रम की भाँति यह सारा दृश्य जगत्‌ सत्य ही प्रतीत होता है और जिनके केवल चरण ही भवसागर से तरने की इच्छा वालों के लिए एकमात्र नौका हैं, उन समस्त कारणों से पर (सब कारणों के कारण और सबसे श्रेष्ठ) राम कहलाने वाले भगवान हरि की मैं वंदना करता हूँ॥6॥
This verse echoes the Advaitic treatment of the world-appearance: In the substratum that is Brahman is the appearance of the entire universe of knowers, knowing and known objects, owing to the mAyA power just like the appearance of a snake in the substratum of rope owing to the ignorance of the rope. The relief from this state of world-appearance and taking it to be real, comes from the only upAya that is realizing the true nature of oneself by taking refuge at the Substratum:  Says Krishna in the Bhagavadgita 7th chapter:
दैवी ह्येषा गुणमयी मम माया दुरत्यया । मां एव ये प्रपद्यन्ते मायां एतां तरन्ति ते । । इति [गीता ७.१४]. We can substitute the ‘shakti (sItA) for the ‘daivI mAyA’ and Raama for the ‘mAm’ in the Gita verse.

Also the depiction of SitA as mAyA and Rama as Brahman has the basis in the Advaitic doctrine of ‘mAyAshabalitam brahma’ where it is only the Brahman in association of mAyA that can bring about the world creation.

Now we see here the Shiva stuti by Tulasidasa in the Ramacharitamanas UttarakAnDa:

नमामीशमीशाननिर्वाणरूपं विभुं व्यापकं ब्रह्मवेदस्वरूपम् |
निजं निर्गुणं निर्विकल्पं निरीहं चिदाकाशमाकाशवासं भजेऽहम् ||१||

निराकारमोंकारमूलं तुरीयं गिराज्ञानगोतीतमीशं गिरीशम् |
करालं महाकालकालं कृपालं गुणागारसंसारपारं नतोहम् ||२||

तुषाराद्रिसंकाशगौरं गभीरं मनोभूतकोटिप्रभाश्रीशरीरम् |
स्फुरन्मौलिकल्लोलिनी चारुगंगा लसद्भालबालेन्दुकण्ठे भुजंगा ||३||

चलत्कुण्डलं भ्रूसुनेत्रं विशालं प्रसन्नाननं नीलकण्ठं दयालम् |
मृगाधीशचर्माम्बरं मुण्डमालं प्रियं शंकरं सर्वनाथं भजामि ||४||

प्रचण्डं प्रकृष्टं प्रगल्भं परेशं अखण्डं अजं भानुकोटिप्रकाशम् |
त्रयः शूलनिर्मूलनं शूलपाणिं भजेऽहं भावानीपतिं भावगम्यम् ||५||

कलातीतकल्याणकल्पान्तकारी सदा सज्जनान्ददाता पुरारी |
चिदानंदसंदोहमोहापहारी प्रसीद प्रसीद प्रभो मन्मथारी ||६||

न यावदुमानाथपादारविन्दं भजन्तीह लोके परे वा नराणाम् |
न तावत्सुखं शान्ति संतापनाशं प्रसीद प्रभो सर्वभूताधिवासम् ||७||

न जानामि योगं जपं नैव पूजां नतोऽहं सदा सर्वदा शम्भु तुभ्यम् |
जराजन्मदुःखौघतातप्यमानं प्रभो पाहि आपन्नमामीश शम्भो ||८||

रुद्राष्टकमिदं प्रोक्तं विप्रेण हरतुष्टये |
ये पठन्ति नरा भक्त्या तेषां शम्भुः प्रसीदति ||

|| इति श्री गोस्वामी तुलसीदास कृतं श्रीरुद्राष्टकम् संपूर्णम् ||

We are reminded of the famous verse on Ganesha which shows the Parabrahmatvam of Ganesha:

अजं निर्विकल्पं निराकारमेकं

निरानन्दमानन्दम् अद्वैतपूर्णम्
परं निर्गुणं निर्विशेषं निरीहं
परब्रह्मरूपं गणेशं भजेम ॥ १ ॥
गुणातीतमानं चिदानन्दरूपं
चिदाभासकं सर्वगं ज्ञानगम्यम् ।
मुनिध्येयमाकाश रूपं परेशं
परब्रह्मरूपं गणेशं भजेम ॥ २ ॥
 
जगत्कारणं कारणज्ञानरूपं
सुरादिं सुखादिं गुणेशं गणेशम् ।
जगद्व्यापिनं विश्ववन्द्यं सुरेशं
परब्रह्मरूपं गणेशं भजेम ॥ ३ ॥
The Ramacharitamanas is a fine example of Shiva-Keshava abheda as brought out by this book:
http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/br/2002/05/21/stories/2002052100120303.htm

// He (Tulasidas) made a conscious effort to create unity among different religious sects. He gives equal importance to Saivism together with the doctrine of Shivakesava Advaita, where, Siva and Kesava are treated with same devotion. No wonder this book has swept the entire North India with its mellifluous style and inherent melody for over 500 years now and continues to be so. //

Only someone with the Advaitic orientation can accomplish this.  We find a parallel in Saint Thyagaraja swami, the great Telugu composer.  Thyagaraja composed numerous songs in praise of Sri Rama.  Rama is his ‘prANanAtha’, iShTadeivam.  Yet Thyagaraja has sung the famous song on Shiva:   नादतनुमनिशं शंकरं नमामि मे मनसा शिरसा ….http://sahityam.net/wiki/Nada_tanumanisham  
where Thyagaraja shows that Shiva is no different for him than Rama as his ‘heart deity’.  In yet another composition Thyagaraja brings this concept to the fore:  राम नन्नु ब्रोवर..(telugu) where he says: cimalO brahmalO shiva kEshavAdulalO prEma mIra melugu cuNDe birudu vAhincina sItA  …which means: You are acclaimed as the benefactor of all Creation from the tiny ant to the Trinity.
Just as Tulasidas, Thyagaraja too sees Rama as Para brahman that is what manifests in everything in creation, including the Trinity: BrahmA, Vishnu and Shiva. 

 
Thyagaraja Swamin’s idea of ‘Rama as Para Brahman that is the impeller, antaryami, of the Trimurtis’ is contained in Shankara’s commentary on the Vishnu Sahasra Nama for the word/name ‘Keshava’  alternatively, has given an etymological meaning for the name  in the VSN Bhāṣya number 23: कश्च अश्च ईशश्च त्रिमूर्तयः केशास्ते यद्वशेन वर्तन्ते स केशवः ।

 
[Brahmā, Vishnu and Shiva are the trimūrti-s – all of whom are under the control of that entity which is called Keśava.] Thus Shankara clubs Viṣṇu too along with the other two and shows Viśṇu is also under the control of a higher authority. 


In these lines Tulasidas brings out the ShivapAramyam:
न यावदुमानाथपादारविन्दं भजन्तीह लोके परे वा नराणाम् |
न तावत्सुखं शान्ति संतापनाशं प्रसीद प्रभो सर्वभूताधिवासम् ||७||

Just like Adishankara, who sees Shiva, Vishnu and other deities as manifestations of Para Brahman, so too Tulasidas sees no difference between Shiva and Vishnu.  Shiva is the greatest Vaishnava (‘paramavaishnava’ as the Madhwa school holds) and Vishnu is the greatest Shivabhakta.

Om Tat Sat



Responses

  1. Rudrashtakam is a beautiful composition by Sri Tulsidas. He refers to Shiva as Turiyam, Paresham, BrahmaVeda Swaroopam, Nirakara and Omakara all which are unpalatable for the self appointed custodians of Sanathana Dharma.

    Kind Regards
    Arun


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