Posted by: adbhutam | April 2, 2018

Saguna and Nirguna stuti of Vishnu by Deva-s in the Vishnu Puranam

Saguna and Nirguna stuti of Vishnu by Deva-s in the Vishnu Puranam

In the Vishnu Purana there is a stuti of Vishnu by Deva-s.  This stuti, as explained by Sridhara Swamin, has a saguna and nirguna part:

For the following section, Sridhara Swamin says:  तत्र प्रथमं विश्वरूपेण सगुणं स्तुवन्ति – ‘त्वमुर्वी’ त्यादिना ‘ तस्मै सर्वात्मने नमः’ इत्यन्तेन | [First, the gods praise Vishnu as Vishvarupa, the Saguna Brahman, from the 14th up to the 30th verse:

त्वमुर्वी सलिलं वह्निर्वायुराकाशमेव च । समस्तमन्तःकरणं प्रधान तत्परः पुमान् ॥१४॥

एकं तवैतद्भूतात्मन्मूर्तामूर्र्त्तमयं वपुः । आब्रहास्तम्बपर्यंन्तं स्थानकालविभेदवत् ॥१५॥

Sridhara Swamin says: The variegated world is Your unitary Body.

Brahman is everything in the creation. The good, bad and ugly are all Brahman. The Shatarudriyam too portrays Brahman in the same manner.

तत्रेश तव यत्पूर्वं त्वन्नाभिकमलोद्भवम् । रूपं विश्वोपकाराय तस्मै ब्रह्मात्मने नमः ॥१६॥ [Brahma is Vishnu’s form]

शक्रार्करुद्रवस्वश्विमरुत्सोमादिभेदवत् । वयमेकं स्वरूपं ते तस्मै देवात्मने नमः ॥१७॥

दम्भप्रायमसम्बोधि तितिक्षादमवर्जितम् । यद्रूपं तव गोविन्द तस्मै दैत्यात्मने नमः ॥१८॥

नातिज्ञानवहा यस्मिन्नाड्यः स्तिमिततेजसि । शब्दादिलोभि यस्तस्मै तुभ्यं यक्षात्मने नमः ॥१९॥

क्रौर्यमायामयं घोरं यच्च रूपं तवासितम् । निशाचरात्मने तस्मै नमस्ते पुरुषोत्तम ॥२०॥

स्वर्गस्थधर्मिसद्धर्मफलोपकरणं तव । धर्माख्यं च तथा रूपं नमस्तस्मै जनार्दन ॥२१॥

हर्षप्रायमसंसर्गि गतिमद्गमनादिष । सिद्धाख्यं तव यद्रुपं तस्मै सिद्धात्मने नमः ॥२२॥

अतितिक्षायनं क्रुरमुपभोगसहं हरे । द्विजिह्वं तव यद्रुपं तस्मै नागाम्तने नमः ॥२३॥

अवबोधि च यच्छान्तमदोषमपकल्पषम् । ऋषिरूपात्मने तस्मै विष्णो रूपाय ते नमः ॥२४॥

भक्षयत्यथ कल्पान्ते भुतानि यदवारितम् । त्वदूपं पुण्डरिकाक्ष तस्मै कालात्मने नमः ॥२५॥

सम्भक्ष्य सर्वभूतानि देवादीन्यविशेषतः । नृत्यत्यन्ते च यद्रूप तस्मै रुद्रात्मने नमः ॥२६॥

Sridhara Swamin says: Rudra is Your form, through that You consume everything (pralaya) and dance.

प्रवृत्त्या रजसो यच्च कर्मणां करणात्मकम् । जनार्दन नमस्तस्मै त्वद्रूपाय नरात्मने ॥२७॥

अष्टविंशद्वधोपेतं यद्रुपं तामसं तव । उन्मार्गगामि सर्वात्मंस्तसमि वश्यात्मने नमः ॥२८॥

यज्ञांगभूतं यद्रूपं जगतः स्थितिसाधनम् । वृक्षादिभेदैष्षड्‌भेदि तस्मै मुख्यात्मने नमः ॥२९॥

तिर्यड्‌मनुष्यदेवादिव्योमशब्दादिकं च यत । रूपं तवादेः सर्वस्य तस्मै सर्वात्मने नमः ॥३०॥

Translation based on Sacred Texts:  http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/vp/vp091.htm

“Thou art earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, crude matter, and primeval soul: all this elementary creation, with or without visible form, is thy body; all, from Brahmá to a stock, diversified by place and time. Glory to thee, who art Brahmá, thy first form, evolved from the lotus springing from thy navel, for the purpose of creation. Glory to thee, who art Indra, the sun, Rudra, the Vasus, fire, the winds, and even also ourselves. Glory to thee, Govinda, who art all demons, whose essence is arrogance and want of discrimination, unchecked by patience or self-control. Glory to thee, who art the Yakshas, whose nature is charmed with sounds, and whose frivolous hearts perfect knowledge cannot pervade. Glory to thee, who art all fiends, that walk by night, sprung from the quality of darkness, fierce, fraudulent, and cruel. Glory to thee, Janárddana, who art that piety which is the instrument of recompensing the virtues of those who abide in heaven. Glory to thee, who art one with the saints, whose perfect nature is ever blessed, and traverses unobstructed all permeable elements. Glory to thee, who art one with the serpent race, double-tongued, impetuous, cruel, insatiate of enjoyment, and abounding with wealth. Glory to thee, who art one with the Rishis, whose nature is free from sin or defect, and is identified with wisdom and tranquillity. Glory to thee, oh lotus-eyed, who art one with time, the form that devours, without remorse, all created things at the termination of the Kalpa. Glory to thee, who art Rudra, the being that dances with delight after he has swallowed up all things, the gods and the rest, without distinction. Glory to thee, Janárddana, who art man, the agent in developing the results of that activity which proceeds from the quality of foulness. Glory to thee, who art brute animals, the universal spirit that tends to perversity, which proceeds from the quality of darkness, and is encumbered with the twenty-eight kinds of obstructions . Glory to thee, who art that chief spirit which is diversified in the vegetable world, and which, as the essence of sacrifice, is the instrument of accomplishing the perfection of the universe. Glory to thee, who art every thing, and whose primeval form is the objects of perception, and heaven, and animals, and men, and gods.

Having sung the praise of Vishnu as the vishvarupa, the saguna brahman, the devas now address him as the Nirguna tattvam:

Sridhara Swamin says: इदानीं निर्गुणं ब्रह्म प्रणमन्ति – [Now the Nirguna Brahma is praised]-

The Upanishads teach Nirguna Brahman in unique ways such as ‘neti neti’, ‘ashabdam asprarsham arupam avyavyam…’, ‘ekam eva adviteeyam’, ‘shuddham’, etc. which can be seen in these verses in different words:

प्रधानबुद्धयादिमयादशेषाद्यदन्यदस्मात्परमं परमात्मन् । रूपं तवाद्यं यदनन्यतुल्यं तस्मै नमः कारणकारणाय ॥३१॥

शुक्लादिदीर्घादिघनादिहीनमनोचरे यच्च विशेषणानाम् । शुद्धातिशुद्धं परमर्षिदृश्यं रूपाय तस्मै भगवन्नताः स्मः ॥३२॥

यन्नः शरीरेषु यदन्यदेहेष्वशेषवस्तुष्वजमक्षयं यत् । तस्माच्च नान्यद्‌व्यतिरिक्तमस्ति ब्रह्मस्वरूपाय नताः स्म तस्मै ॥३३॥

स्कलमिदमजस्य यस्य रूपं परमपदात्मवतस्सनातस्य । तमनिधनमशेषबीजभूतं प्रभुमंमलं प्रणतास्स्म वासुदेवम् ॥३४॥

Glory to thee, who art the cause of causes, the supreme spirit; who art distinct from all beings composed of intelligence and matter and the like, and with whose primeval nature there is nothing that can be compared. We bow to thee, O lord, who hast neither colour, nor extension, nor bulk, nor any predicable qualities; and whose essence, purest of the pure, is appreciable only by holy sages. We bow to thee, in the nature of Brahma, untreated, undecaying; who art in our bodies, and in all other bodies, and in all living creatures; and besides whom there is nothing else. We glorify that Vásudeva, the sovereign lord of all, the seed of all things, exempt from dissolution, unborn, eternal, being in essence the supreme condition of spirit, and in substance the whole of this universe.”

Thus we have a very instructive stuti here where the saguna rupam, also known as vishva rupam where Brahman is seen to be associated and, immanent in the world, and the nirguna rupam where Brahman is taught as completely unconnected, disassociated (prapanchopashamam) with the world and transcendent. One has to appreciate Brahman as the entire creation. This is Vishvarupa anusandhaanam. By adequately exposed to this contemplation one becomes capable of grasping the Nirguna Brahman, with no connection with the creation whatsoever. Thus, by the method of adhyaropa (of the saguna) and its apavada in Nirguna, the Vedanta Shaastra conveys the Truth that has no name, no word to convey it. It is in silence that one realizes oneself as the Truth.

Sridhara Swamin, at the beginning of his commentary to the Vishnu Puranam has said that this Puranam affords a great scope to secure the Advaitic knowledge.

Om Tat Sat


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