Posted by: adbhutam | May 20, 2017

RAMA AND KRISHNA ARE JIVA-S – MAHABHARATA

In the short work ‘Bhārata sāraga sangraha stotram’, Sri Appayya Dikshita concludes by pointing out that Rama and Krishna were jiva-s, endowed with karma, delusion, etc. on the authority of the Mahabharata:

गोप्तारं ततो गच्छेत् सरव्यास्तीर्थमुत्तमम् ।

तत्र रामो गतः स्वर्गं सभृत्यबलवाहनः ॥

देहं त्यक्त्वा दिवं यातः स्थास्यतीन्द्रस्य वैभवात् ।’

[Rama went to svarga along with his retinue, after giving up the body, and remains there with Indra’s lordship.]

इति गोप्रतारतीर्थमहिम्ना श्रीरामस्य स्वर्गप्रतिष्ठावचनात्; सभापर्वणि यमसभावर्णने –

Having thus proclaimed the greatness of Go-pratāra, Sri Rama’s settlement in Svarga, the sabhā parvan of the Mahabharata while describing the Assembly Hall of Yama further says:

तस्यां राजर्षयः पुण्यास्तथा देवर्षयोऽमराः ।

यमं वैवस्वतं तात प्रहृष्टाः पर्युपासते ॥

ययातिर्नहुषः पूरुर्मान्धाता सोमको नृगः ।

इत्यारभ्य  स्वर्गप्राप्त्यनन्तरं यमसभायामास्थाय तमुपासीनानां राजर्षीणां परिगणनेन, ’रामो दाशरथिश्चैव लक्षमणश्च प्रतर्दनः’ इति परिगणनेन च सोऽपि कर्माधीनलोकप्राप्तिको जीवविशेषः स्यात् ।

In the Assembly Hall of Yama are present: Rajarshi-s with puṇya, devarshi-s, deva-s, who happily meditate upon Yama. Also are Yayati, Nahusha, Puru, Māndhāta, Somaka, Nṛga. Having enumerated those present in the Assembly and meditating Yama, the Mahabharata includes: Rāma the son of Dasharatha, Lakshmana and Pratardana. By so counting Rama along with all other entities, it can be concluded that Rama is a jiva who has attained a loka that is subject to and attainable by karma.

After giving one instance for Rama to be taken as a jiva by someone, Sri Appayya Dikshita gives an instance where Krishna is also not free from such a possibility:

ततः शार्ङ्गं धनुःश्रेष्ठं करात्प्रपतितं मम।
मोहापन्नश्च कौन्तेय रथोपस्थ उपाविशम् ।।

Mahabharata Aranyaparvan: 3.21.25

Krishna says to Yudhishthira: Thereafter the excellent bow,  śārnga, fell off my hand. O son of Kunti, deluded as I was, I, sat in the chariot.

इति आरण्यपर्वणि शाल्वयुद्धे कृष्णस्य मोहाज्ञानवचनेन सोऽपि जीवविशेषः स्यात् ।  The above words of Krishna admitting his delusion and ignorance, can result in someone taking him to be a jiva.

Sri Appayya Dikshitar concludes that explanation: तस्मात् कृत्स्नमपि भारतं गीतानुगीता मोक्षधर्मवैष्णवधर्मशास्त्रसहितं विशेषध्वनिवृत्त्या शिवपारम्यविश्रान्तं तत्प्रधानमेव भगवता श्रीवेदव्यासेन कृतमित्येतत् सुप्रतिष्ठितमिति सर्वम् समञ्जसम् ॥

Thus, the entire Mahabharata including the Bhagavadgita, the Anugita, Moksha dharma, along with vaishnava dharma shastra, by the method of ‘viśeṣadhvani’, (‘unique/emphatic purport’) is upholding the supremacy of Shiva alone. Such is the way Bhagavan Veda Vyasa has composed the MB. This fact has been firmly established (by us) in this work:  ‘Bhārata sāraga sangraha stotram’.

There are other compelling references in the scriptural literature for holding Krishna/Vishnu to be a jiva:

    • The Kaṭharudropaniṣat which Shankara has cited in the Br.up.Bhashya and Sri Vishveshvara Saraswati in the Yati Dharma Sangraha holds Vishnu to be a jiva, experiencing ananda of the highest jiva-order. अस्यैवानन्दकोशेन स्तम्बान्ता विष्णुपूर्वकाः ।भवन्ति सुखिनो नित्यं तारतम्यक्रमेण तु ॥ २९॥
      [All (jīva-s) up to the tiniest creature, starting from Viṣṇu (instead of Brahmā) onward, always derive joy from this ānanda kośa on a relative scale depending on their status.]

In the Panchadaśī 10.2 is this verse:

परमात्माऽद्वयानन्दपूर्णः पूर्वं स्वमायया ।स्वयमेव जगद्भूत्वा प्राविशज्जीवरूपतः ॥ १ ॥

  1. Before the projection of the world the Supreme Self, the secondless, all-bliss and ever complete, alone existed. Through His Maya He became the world and entered into it as the Jiva, the individual Self.

विष्ण्वाद्युत्तमदेहेषु प्रविष्टो देवताभवत् ।

मर्त्याद्यधमदेहेषु स्थितो भजति मर्त्यताम् ॥ २ ॥

  1. Entering the superior bodies like that of Vishnu, He (Brahman) became the deities; and remaining in the inferior bodies like that of men He worships the deities.

In the Bṛ.Up. the creation of Vishnu is hinted: See the Shankara bhashya on this with a detailed analysis here:

https://adbhutam.wordpress.com/2015/07/10/evidence-in-the-br-upanishad-for-vi%E1%B9%A3%E1%B9%87u-being-created/

In the VSN bhashya Shankara has cited a verse that says ‘Hari is subject to ahankara of the binding type.’:

स्वमायया स्वमात्मानं मोहयन्द्वैतमायया ।

गुणाहितं स्वमात्मानं लभते च स्वयं हरिः ॥

[By his own Māyā, deluding himself with the illusion of dvaita, Hari Himself comes to see himself endowed with guṇas.]

In the Soundarya Lahari, which has been translated into Tamil in the 11 CE, Shankara says:

विरिञ्चिः पञ्चत्वं व्रजति हरिराप्नोति विरतिं
विनाशं कीनाशो भजति  धनदो याति निधनम्।
वितन्द्री माहोन्द्री विततिरपि संमीलितदृशा
महासंहारेऽस्मिन् विहरति सति त्वत्पतिरसौ॥ 26 ||

viriñci – Brahmā; pañcatvaṁ vrajati – ceases to exit; hari āpnoti viratiṁ – Viṣṇu also attains His end; vināśaṁ kīnāśo bhajati – Yama also gets destroyed; dhanado yāti nidhanam – Kubera also meets with his end; vitandrī māhondrī vitatirapi – active Indra with other gods;  saṁmīlitadṛśā  – become functionless with their eyes closed; mahāsaṁhāre asmin – even in that great dissolution; viharati – enjoying with You; sati tvat patir asau – faithful Consort of Śiva.

Madhusudana Saraswati in the invocation to the Advaitasiddhi says that ‘Vishnu rests having become freed from the mithyā bondage.’

मायाकल्पितमातृतामुखमृषाद्वैतप्रपञ्चाश्रयः

सत्यज्ञानसुखात्मकः श्रुतिशिखोत्थाखण्डधीगोचरः ।

मिथ्याबन्धविधूननेन परमानन्दैकतानात्मकं

मोक्षं प्राप्त इव स्वयं विजयते विष्णुर्विकल्पोज्झितः ॥ इति   ।

The Atharvaśikhā upanishad holds vishnu, brahma and rudra were all born of Shambhu.

The Mahabharata too says very clearly that Vishnu was created from Rudra:

Mahabharata Anushasanika parva, Ch.45. Here Krishna says about Shiva that from Shiva have Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra have emerged. I have not given the translation of each verse:
योऽसृजद्दक्षिणादङ्गाद्ब्रह्माणं लोकसम्भवम् |
वामपार्श्वात्तथा विष्णुं लोकरक्षार्थमीश्वरः ||१८३||

युगान्ते चैव सम्प्राप्ते रुद्रमङ्गात्सृजत्प्रभुः ||१८३||

स रुद्रः संहरन्कृत्स्नं जगत्स्थावरजङ्गमम् |
कालो भूत्वा महातेजाः संवर्तक इवानलः ||१८४||

एष देवो महादेवो जगत्सृष्ट्वा चराचरम् |
कल्पान्ते चैव सर्वेषां स्मृतिमाक्षिप्य तिष्ठति ||१८५||

सर्वगः सर्वभूतात्मा सर्वभूतभवोद्भवः |
आस्ते सर्वगतो नित्यमदृश्यः सर्वदैवतैः ||१८६||

For more references in other Puranas for Vishnu’s birth see here:

https://adbhutam.wordpress.com/2015/02/10/double-standards-of-some-vaishnavas/

The above is just a sample of such innumerable references in the scriptural literature for the fact of Vishnu being a created entity.

Sri Appayya Dikshita way above Vedanta Desika and other non-advaitins:

In the foregoing were given some references from Appayya Dikshitar’s work for Rama and Krishna’s jivatva. However, does he really mean that? The purport of Dikshitar’s words is: If one would just go by a sentence or two here and there and conclude something, then the consequence will be that Rama and Krishna will have to be held to be jiva-s. The word ‘syāt’ is indicative of this. He wants the global picture to be considered and not any stray verses to determine what he has in mind. Dikshitar’s mind is best seen in this one important verse:

Appayya has very clearly stated why he undertook the task of bringing to light Shiva-supremacy:

// viShNurvA shankaro vA shruti-shikhara-girAmastu tAtparya-bhUmiH
na-asmAkam tatra vAdaH prasarati kimapi spaShTam-advaita-bhAjAm |
kintu-Isha-dveSha-gADhAnala-kalita-hRRidAm durmatInAm duruktIH
bhanktum yatno mama-ayam nahi bhavatu tato viShNu-vidveSha-shankAm ||

The meaning of the above beautiful verse is:

‘I have not the slightest objection, to anyone coming to any conclusion, that the spirit of the Vedas and the Vedantas, declare either Vishnu or Shiva as the First God. I am a follower of the
Advaita doctrine. I have no difference between Shiva and VishNu. But if in order to establish Vishnu as the main God, if somebody starts abusing Shiva or hates him, I cannot bear it. There are as many proofs or pramanas in the Vedas, Vedantas, Puranas and Agamas to establish that Shiva is a mighty God, as there are to prove that Vishnu is a powerful one. However, I am propagating my religion and indulging in debate and disputation, only to persuade everyone not
to hate Shiva. Let no one have the slightest doubt that I either hate or wish to denigrate Lord Vishnu simply because I praise the grace and greatness of Lord Shiva.’

The sublime devotion of Dikshita to Lord Vishnu is fully seen from his great work ‘Varadaraja stava’ where he has sung in ecstatic poetry about Lord Varadaraja of Kanchipuram. Vaishnavas declare that Vishnu is the supreme being and that Shiva has a lower status, being a mere jiva. Sri Dikshita however proves in his ‘Ratna-traya-parIkShA’ that Shiva, Vishnu, Ambika, all the three are the same, viz., the supreme reality, and proves it with the pramanas taken
from the puranas, vedas and agamas. //

The above is quoted from the book: ‘Sri Appayya Dikshita’ (p.66,67) by Dr.N.Ramesan, IAS.

Such a mind free of all bigotry is never the type of Vedanta Desika who concludes that Shiva is a jiva by not knowing the true purport of the shruti/smriti/puranas. Credit goes to Sri Dikshitar for revealing to the world the mind of Veda Vyasa that, incidentally, strikes the death knell to Vedanta Desika’s bigotry:

From MB Drona parva:

http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh07_sa.html

Also available in:

http://bombay.indology.info/mahabharata/text/UD/MBh07.txt

नीलकण्ठ उवाच||

मत्प्रसादान्मनुष्येषु देवगन्धर्वयोनिषु |

अप्रमेयबलात्मा त्वं नारायण भविष्यसि ||७४||

[[Nīlakanṭha said: By My grace, you Nārāyaṇa, will be of unequalled strength among humans, gods and other divine beings.]

न च त्वा प्रसहिष्यन्ति देवासुरमहोरगाः |

न पिशाचा न गन्धर्वा न नरा न च राक्षसाः ||७५||

न सुपर्णास्तथा नागा न च विश्वे वियोनिजाः |

न कश्चित्त्वां च देवोऽपि समरेषु विजेष्यति ||७६||

न शस्त्रेण न वज्रेण नाग्निना न च वायुना |

नार्द्रेण न च शुष्केण त्रसेन स्थावरेण वा ||७७||

कश्चित्तव रुजं कर्ता मत्प्रसादात्कथञ्चन |

अपि चेत्समरं गत्वा भविष्यसि ममाधिकः ||७८||

[Due to My grace, You, Nārāyaṇa, will not be harmed/killed by any of the beings or weapons of this creation.  Also in the event of your entering a battle, you will be more powerful than Me, Rudra.]

व्यास उवाच|| एवमेते वरा लब्धाः पुरस्ताद्विद्धि शौरिणा |स एष देवश्चरति मायया मोहयञ्जगत् ||७९|| Vyāsa concluded his reply to Ashwatthāma’s question: These boons were secured by Shourie (Hari) (from Rudra).  Hari, wanders this earth deluding beings with Māyā. ]   तस्यैव तपसा जातं नरं नाम महामुनिम् |तुल्यमेतेन देवेन तं जानीह्यर्जुनं सदा ||८०|| [Of His (Nārāyaṇa’s) penance has Arjuna, the Nara, been born.  Arjuna is equal to Nārāyana. Thus Vyāsa answered Ashvatthāma’s question on how/why indeed Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna remained unaffected by the Āgneya missile that was released against them.] The above episode of the MB is also reflected in the Harivamśa:http://www.mahapashupatastra.com/2011/12/top-n-reasons-to-call-bhagawatam-bogus.html

“yathA mainAkamAshritya tapastvamakaroH prabho |
tathA mama varaM kR^iShNa saMsmR^itya sthairyamApnuhi |
avadhyastvamajeyashcha mattaH shUratarastathA |
bhavitAsItyavochaM yattattathA na tadanyathA |” (Harivamsa Purana 2:74:37-38)

O kRiShNa! As you did penance staying on mainAka, you received a boon from me. Be firm in your mind, remembering that boon. You can not be killed, you can not be conquered, and you will be more valiant than me. All this will happen as told by me. None will be able to change this”.

Thus, there are innumerable references to Vishnu/Rama/Krishna being a jiva. And whatever references the bigoted non-advaitins might bring up to twist the purport of the Veda and Veda Vyasa, the above Drona Parva verses, among many, are enough to nullify and silence them.  This verse from the Mahabharata, cited in the 11-14CE Andhra Bharata, summarizes the purport of the Veda:

रुद्रो नारायणश्चैव सत्त्वमेकं द्विधा कृतम्।

लोके चरति कौन्तेय व्यक्तिस्थं सर्वकर्मसु।। 12-350-27

It is One Principle that appears in the world as Rudra and Narayana.

Non-advaitins will never be able to digest this verse, for their very philosophy precariously rests on a deity that has a form and attributes. It is for this reason alone that they labor hard to safegaurd their supreme deity from their strong opponent deity!! They twist and turn and churn vedic and puranic passages to somehow stall the imminent danger they face from their opponent deity: Shiva. Such is not the method of the Vedanta. Vedanta rests on the Upanishadic tattva and not on a personal deity. Advaita alone transcends such lowly thinking and remains free of all bigotry.

Om Tat Sat

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