Posted by: adbhutam | October 13, 2012

षड्विधतात्पर्यलिङ्गानि – The Six-fold determinatory indicatory marks

षड्विधतात्पर्यलिङ्गानि

श्रीगुरुभ्यो नमः

पूर्वमीमांसाशास्त्रोक्तषद्विधतात्पर्यलिङ्गानि वेदान्तशास्त्रे एवम् सङ्गृहीतानि  सन्ति –

उपक्रमोपसंहारावभ्यासोऽपूर्वता फलम् ।

अर्थवादोपपत्ती च लिङ्गं तात्पर्यनिर्णये ॥ इति ।

तेन ज्ञायते – उपक्रमोपसंहारौ द्वौ मिलित्वा एकं लिङ्गम्, अभ्यासः, अपूर्वता, फलम्, अर्थवादः, उपपत्तिश्च इति षट् गण्यते इति । श्रीमधुसूदनसरस्वतिपादैः अद्वैतसिद्धौ षण्णां लिङ्गानां अवान्तरव्यवस्था एवमुपदिश्यते – त्रयाणां त्रयाणां इति विभागद्वयं कृत्वा एकैकस्य विभागस्य भिन्नतया प्रयोजनकथनद्वारा विनियोगः इति । तदत्र निरूप्यते ।

अपूर्वत्वम्, उपपत्तिः, फलम् इति प्रथमो गणः। उपक्रमोपसंहारौ, अभ्यासः, अर्थवाद इति द्वितीयो गणः ।  प्रथमगणे तावत् अपूर्वत्वलिङ्गेन प्रमाणान्तराज्ञातत्वं बोधयति ।  नाम, विचार्यमाणग्रन्थभागे यदालोच्यते तत् अन्यत्रानुपदिष्टं सत् अत्रैव ज्ञायते इति अपूर्वतां भजते   ।     उपपत्तिलिङ्गेन तु युक्तिपुरस्सरस्थापनेन विषयोऽयमबाधित इति सिद्ध्यति । अपूर्वता चोपपत्तिश्च तदैव सार्थकं स्यात् यदा बोध्यमानविषयः निर्दिष्टफलवान् स्यात् ।विशिष्टफलाभावे पूर्वोक्तलिङ्गद्वयमकिञ्चित्करमेव शिष्येत ।एवं प्रथमगणस्य विनियोगः।

कदाचिदिदमपि संभवति यदेकस्मिन् ग्रन्थभागे नैके विषयाः प्रतिपादिताः स्युः, उपपादनमपि दृश्यते फलं च स्पष्टमवगम्यते । तादृशस्थलेषु अस्य ग्रन्थस्य इदमेव तात्पर्यमिति विनिगमनाभावे तन्निर्णयाय उपयुज्यते द्वितीयो गणः । तदा अवशिष्टलिङ्गत्रये एकोऽपि ग्रन्थस्य तात्पर्यनिर्णयायालं भवति । तद्यथा उपक्रमोपसंहारपरामर्शनेन वा अभ्यासपर्यालोचनेन वा अर्थवाददर्शनेन वा अत्रैव तात्पर्यमिति निश्चेतुं शक्यते । तेन च प्रकरणि अनन्यशेषतया निर्णयमाप्नोति । अत्रैव शास्त्रोक्तषड्विधतात्पर्यबोधकलिङ्गस्य प्रयोजनं भवति ।

 

ओम् तत् सत्

The Six-fold determinatory indicatory marks

shrIgurubhyo namaH

The six-fold indicatory marks required for ascertaining the purport of a text, spoken of in the pUrva mImAmsA shAstra, is collectively presented in the Vedanta shAstra thus:

upakramopasaMhArAvabhyAso’apUrvatA phalam

arthavAdopapattI ca lingaM tAtparyanirNaye.

From this verse we come to know that the six are –

  1.     ‘the commencement (upakrama) and ending (upasamhAra)’ put together is one mark
  2.  ‘repitition’ / reiteration (abhyAsa)
  3.   uniqueness (apUrvatA)
  4.  fruit or benefit (phalam)
  5.  eulogy (arthavAda) and
  6. reasoning (upapattiH)

Sri MadhusUdana Saraswati SwaminaH, in the ‘advaita siddhi’, has shown a method by which the six marks are grouped into two consisting of three marks each which have distinct applications. This is delineated below.

apUrvatA, upapattiH and phalam constitute the first group.  upakrama-upasamhAra, abhyAsa and arthavAdaH are in the second group.

In the first group, by the apUrvatA mark we come to know that the subject discussed is not known from any other source and is known from this text alone.

upapatti or logically reasoned presentation helps us know that the subject is firmly established without being contradicted/rescinded.

The above two marks become meaningful only if the subject discussed/delineated bears a specific fruit/benefit (phalam).  In the absence of this specific fruit (found mentioned in the text under consideration) the former two marks are rendered redundant. Thus is explained the first group.

It is possible sometimes that a text is seen to discuss several topics and they appear to be supported by reasoned presentation and the benefit too is specified clearly.

In such a situation it becomes impossible to ascertain on firm grounds that such and such is the purport of the text. Here lies the utility of the second group.

Among the remaining three marks (constituting the second group) even one would be sufficient to determine the purport.

Thus by noticing the upakrama-upasamhAra mark, or by observing the abhyAsa mark or by discerning the eulogical indicator one can determine the purport of the text.

By this treatment the particular topic discussed in the context of the text becomes determined as not a subsidiary of any other topic but enjoying the status of being the main topic.

[The above is adapted from the talk delivered by the renowned scholar vidwan Dr.Mani Dravid SastrinaH (on a certain aspect of the ‘AnandamayAdhikaraNam’ of the Brahmasutra bhashyam) at the recent vAkyArtha sadas in the presence of the Sringeri Acharya in Chennai. ]

Om Tat Sat


Responses

  1. very nice..

    • Thank you jeevothama.

      regards


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